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Biology Final Exam Review Sheet – Academic
The biology final exam consists of 50 multiple choice questions. The questions are grouped into
categories. The categories and questions may not appear in the order they were taught in class.
Categories include: molecules of life, cell physiology, cell energy, genetics, embryology, and
microbiology. The exam makes up 10% of your overall grade. It is very important that you take
the final exam seriously! Studying is not an option, it is required. Portions of this review sheet
will be due throughout the next week. To get full credit for the review you must answer the
questions on a separate piece of paper. It must be handwritten. Write out detailed answers.
Your answers do not have to be in sentences, but they do have to be detailed or you won’t
receive full credit! Use your notes and the textbook to answer the questions. When you turn in
the questions on the due dates you must turn in this paper. I will record your grade in the
checked column on the timeline below. On the last day I will add up all of your daily grades to
calculate your final grade on this assignment. On the final day, when grades are recorded, you
must have ALL sections. If any sections have been lost then points will be deducted. The answers
to this review sheet WILL NOT be accepted after the last unit is due. It is very important that you
have the review packet with you and completed on time!!
Where is it in my
Due Date
Chapter 2
Cell Physiology
Chapter 7
Cell Energy
Chapters 8,9
Chapters 10, 12
Chapters 11, 16
39-3, 39-4
after keystones
Chapter 19
All complete on time (extra credit)
Total Points Earned
Points Points
value earned
Unit 1 – Molecules of Life (biochemistry)
1. All organic compounds contain what element? What are 2 other elements MOST
commonly found in organic compounds in addition to the first element listed?
2. Differentiate between a covalent and ionic bond.
3. Make a table that lists the follow organic compound and identifies, 1) monomers, 2)
polymers, and 3) major function(s) in the body.
a. Carbohydrates
b. Lipids
c. Proteins
d. Nucleic acids
4. Draw water. Label the elements and charges that make up water.
5. Explain the terms “polar” and “non-polar.”
a. Which organic compound in non-polar?
b. Explain why water is polar.
6. Explain the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic
a. How are these terms related to polar and non-polar?
7. Explain acids and bases using the pH scale.
8. What is a biological catalyst? How do they work?
9. What is the function of enzymes? Why are they important for organisms and cells?
10. What environmental factors influence enzyme activity?
11. How do changes in the environmental factors listed above impact the activity of the
12. What is the difference between an element, molecule, atom and compound.
Unit 2: Cell Physiology
13. Create a venn diagram showing the differences and similarities between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells. Give an example of each.
14. Explain the differences and similarities between unicellular organisms and multicellular
15. What is the function of each of the following organelles?
a. Nucleus
f. Lysosomes
b. Plasma Membrane
g. Golgi body
c. Ribosomes
h. Vacuoles
d. Mitochondrion
i. Cell wall
e. Chloroplasts
**Be able to identify/label these organelles in a plant or animal cell.
16. What organelles listed in #18 are found in most prokaryotic cells?
17. What organelles are present in a plant cell that are absent in an animal cell?
18. What are the levels of organization from simplest to most complex?
19. Create a table comparing active and passive transport. Include the following information:
a) what direction is the concentration gradient? b) Is energy required? c) what is the goal
of this process?
20. Define the following terms and classify them as active or passive transport:
a. diffusion
d. endocytosis
b. osmosis
e. exocytosis
c. facilitated diffusion
21. Draw a phospholipid bilayer (include 8 phospholipids total)
a. include the following labels: phospholipid, phospholipid head, fatty acid tail,
hydrophobic and hydrophilic.
b. Which area(s) would be exposed to water?
22. Draw an example and describe what would happen in cells of the following solutions:
hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic.
a. What type of passive transport is occurring in these examples?
b. What is moving in and out of the cell in each of these 3 scenarios?
c. What happens to a plant cell in a hypertonic environment? In a hypotonic
d. What happens to an animal cell in a hypertonic environment? In a hypotonic
23. What is the meaning of homeostasis?
Unit 3 – Cell Energy (photosynthesis and respiration):
24. What types of organisms use photosynthesis?
25. Draw the structure of ATP and ADP and label the parts. What is the difference in structure
between these two molecules? Which one is higher in energy?
26. What is chlorophyll? Which types of cells contain chlorophyll?
27. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
28. Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration.
29. What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
a. Which one stores energy?
b. Which one releases the stored energy?
30. Compare and contrast the chloroplast and mitochondrion. (What types of organisms
contain each? Single or double membrane? What is its function – what process occurs
31. Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration (fermentation). Which one
produces more ATP?
Unit 4 – Genetics (includes information from: cell division, DNA & protein synthesis, and
genetics unit)
32. What is the cell cycle?
a. What are the phases of the cell cycle?
b. What happens during each of these phases?
33. If a skin cell of an animal had 52 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would be in an
egg cell from this species?
34. Make a chart comparing mitosis and meiosis
a. How many cells are produced by each? Are they identical to the parent or different?
b. Which types of cells, in the human body, are produced by each of the processes?
c. What are the phases of mitosis? Of meiosis?
35. What is non-disjunction? How does it occur?
36. Describe the shape and composition of a DNA molecule.
37. What is the function of DNA?
38. What are the complementary base pair rules for DNA to
DNA? How are complementary bases bonded?
39. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA.
40. What is a codon? What does it code for? How many letters
make up each codon?
41. If you were given the following mRNA sequence (UUC GUU
GGA ACC), what would be the amino acid sequence and
DNA template? (use the genetic code provided here)
42. Define and give an example of each of the following types
of mutations: insertion, deletion and substitution.
43. Describe transcription and translation. Where does each step occur?
44. Define the following terms:
a. Genotype
d. Heterozygous
b. Phenotype
e. Dominant
c. Homozygous
f. Recessive
45. How are the following words related? DNA, gene, RNA, protein, trait
46. What is a Punnett Square & what does it show?
47. Complete the following genetics crosses:
a. Monohybrid Heterozygote Parents (Tt x Tt)
b. Determine the parents’ genotypes and perform a punnett square for the following
problem. Blonde hair is dominant to brown. Two parents are mated one with
blonde hair and one with brown, and some of their children end up with blonde and
some with brown.
48. Explain why most children with an inherited recessive disorder, such as deafness or
albinism, are born to parents who are phenotypically normal.
49. What is a gene pool?
50. What are some of the ways in which species can achieve genetic variation over many
51. How can a species lose genetic diversity over time?
Unit 5 – Embryology
52. What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
a. Which of these processes requires meiosis?
b. Why do most complex organisms use sexual reproduction?
53. What is the difference between diploid and haploid cells? Classify somatic cells and
gametes as each of these.
54. Place the following words in chronological order & then define them:
a. Fertilization
b. Blastula
g. Cleavage
c. Gastrula
h. Gastrulation
d. Zygote
i. Embryo
e. Implantation
j. Fetus
f. Morula
55. What are stem cells?
56. What is cell differentiation?
57. What is the role of the placenta?
58. What are the germ layers? When do they arise and what do they produce?
Unit 6 – Microbiology
59. Create a venn diagram showing the differences and similarities between bacteria and
60. What are the three different shapes of bacteria?
61. Describe the basic structure of a virus. What are the 2 primary parts?
62. How do bacteria reproduce?
63. How do viruses reproduce?
64. How do some bacteria help humans?
65. What are antibiotics? What are they used to treat?
66. What is antibiotic resistance? How/why does it occur?
67. Why do you have to get some vaccines every year instead of only once?