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Biology Final Exam Review Sheet – Academic The biology final exam consists of 50 multiple choice questions. The questions are grouped into categories. The categories and questions may not appear in the order they were taught in class. Categories include: molecules of life, cell physiology, cell energy, genetics, embryology, and microbiology. The exam makes up 10% of your overall grade. It is very important that you take the final exam seriously! Studying is not an option, it is required. Portions of this review sheet will be due throughout the next week. To get full credit for the review you must answer the questions on a separate piece of paper. It must be handwritten. Write out detailed answers. Your answers do not have to be in sentences, but they do have to be detailed or you won’t receive full credit! Use your notes and the textbook to answer the questions. When you turn in the questions on the due dates you must turn in this paper. I will record your grade in the checked column on the timeline below. On the last day I will add up all of your daily grades to calculate your final grade on this assignment. On the final day, when grades are recorded, you must have ALL sections. If any sections have been lost then points will be deducted. The answers to this review sheet WILL NOT be accepted after the last unit is due. It is very important that you have the review packet with you and completed on time!! Section Questions 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 1-12 13-23 24-31 32-42 43-51 52-58 59-67 Unit Where is it in my Due Date textbook? Biochemistry Chapter 2 Cell Physiology Chapter 7 Cell Energy Chapters 8,9 Genetics Chapters 10, 12 Genetics Chapters 11, 16 Embryology 39-3, 39-4 after keystones Microbiology Chapter 19 All complete on time (extra credit) Total Points Earned Points Points value earned 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 +5 35 Unit 1 – Molecules of Life (biochemistry) 1. All organic compounds contain what element? What are 2 other elements MOST commonly found in organic compounds in addition to the first element listed? 2. Differentiate between a covalent and ionic bond. 3. Make a table that lists the follow organic compound and identifies, 1) monomers, 2) polymers, and 3) major function(s) in the body. a. Carbohydrates b. Lipids c. Proteins d. Nucleic acids 4. Draw water. Label the elements and charges that make up water. 5. Explain the terms “polar” and “non-polar.” a. Which organic compound in non-polar? b. Explain why water is polar. 6. Explain the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic a. How are these terms related to polar and non-polar? 7. Explain acids and bases using the pH scale. 8. What is a biological catalyst? How do they work? 9. What is the function of enzymes? Why are they important for organisms and cells? 10. What environmental factors influence enzyme activity? 11. How do changes in the environmental factors listed above impact the activity of the enzyme? 12. What is the difference between an element, molecule, atom and compound. Unit 2: Cell Physiology 13. Create a venn diagram showing the differences and similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Give an example of each. 14. Explain the differences and similarities between unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms. 15. What is the function of each of the following organelles? a. Nucleus f. Lysosomes b. Plasma Membrane g. Golgi body c. Ribosomes h. Vacuoles d. Mitochondrion i. Cell wall e. Chloroplasts **Be able to identify/label these organelles in a plant or animal cell. 16. What organelles listed in #18 are found in most prokaryotic cells? 17. What organelles are present in a plant cell that are absent in an animal cell? 18. What are the levels of organization from simplest to most complex? 19. Create a table comparing active and passive transport. Include the following information: a) what direction is the concentration gradient? b) Is energy required? c) what is the goal of this process? 20. Define the following terms and classify them as active or passive transport: a. diffusion d. endocytosis b. osmosis e. exocytosis c. facilitated diffusion 21. Draw a phospholipid bilayer (include 8 phospholipids total) a. include the following labels: phospholipid, phospholipid head, fatty acid tail, hydrophobic and hydrophilic. b. Which area(s) would be exposed to water? 22. Draw an example and describe what would happen in cells of the following solutions: hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic. a. What type of passive transport is occurring in these examples? b. What is moving in and out of the cell in each of these 3 scenarios? c. What happens to a plant cell in a hypertonic environment? In a hypotonic environment? d. What happens to an animal cell in a hypertonic environment? In a hypotonic environment? 23. What is the meaning of homeostasis? Unit 3 – Cell Energy (photosynthesis and respiration): 24. What types of organisms use photosynthesis? 25. Draw the structure of ATP and ADP and label the parts. What is the difference in structure between these two molecules? Which one is higher in energy? 26. What is chlorophyll? Which types of cells contain chlorophyll? 27. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis. 28. Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration. 29. What is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? a. Which one stores energy? b. Which one releases the stored energy? 30. Compare and contrast the chloroplast and mitochondrion. (What types of organisms contain each? Single or double membrane? What is its function – what process occurs here?) 31. Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration (fermentation). Which one produces more ATP? Unit 4 – Genetics (includes information from: cell division, DNA & protein synthesis, and genetics unit) 32. What is the cell cycle? a. What are the phases of the cell cycle? b. What happens during each of these phases? 33. If a skin cell of an animal had 52 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would be in an egg cell from this species? 34. Make a chart comparing mitosis and meiosis a. How many cells are produced by each? Are they identical to the parent or different? b. Which types of cells, in the human body, are produced by each of the processes? c. What are the phases of mitosis? Of meiosis? 35. What is non-disjunction? How does it occur? 36. Describe the shape and composition of a DNA molecule. 37. What is the function of DNA? 38. What are the complementary base pair rules for DNA to DNA? How are complementary bases bonded? 39. Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. 40. What is a codon? What does it code for? How many letters make up each codon? 41. If you were given the following mRNA sequence (UUC GUU GGA ACC), what would be the amino acid sequence and DNA template? (use the genetic code provided here) 42. Define and give an example of each of the following types of mutations: insertion, deletion and substitution. 43. Describe transcription and translation. Where does each step occur? 44. Define the following terms: a. Genotype d. Heterozygous b. Phenotype e. Dominant c. Homozygous f. Recessive 45. How are the following words related? DNA, gene, RNA, protein, trait 46. What is a Punnett Square & what does it show? 47. Complete the following genetics crosses: a. Monohybrid Heterozygote Parents (Tt x Tt) b. Determine the parents’ genotypes and perform a punnett square for the following problem. Blonde hair is dominant to brown. Two parents are mated one with blonde hair and one with brown, and some of their children end up with blonde and some with brown. 48. Explain why most children with an inherited recessive disorder, such as deafness or albinism, are born to parents who are phenotypically normal. 49. What is a gene pool? 50. What are some of the ways in which species can achieve genetic variation over many generations? 51. How can a species lose genetic diversity over time? Unit 5 – Embryology 52. What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction? a. Which of these processes requires meiosis? b. Why do most complex organisms use sexual reproduction? 53. What is the difference between diploid and haploid cells? Classify somatic cells and gametes as each of these. 54. Place the following words in chronological order & then define them: a. Fertilization b. Blastula g. Cleavage c. Gastrula h. Gastrulation d. Zygote i. Embryo e. Implantation j. Fetus f. Morula 55. What are stem cells? 56. What is cell differentiation? 57. What is the role of the placenta? 58. What are the germ layers? When do they arise and what do they produce? Unit 6 – Microbiology 59. Create a venn diagram showing the differences and similarities between bacteria and viruses. 60. What are the three different shapes of bacteria? 61. Describe the basic structure of a virus. What are the 2 primary parts? 62. How do bacteria reproduce? 63. How do viruses reproduce? 64. How do some bacteria help humans? 65. What are antibiotics? What are they used to treat? 66. What is antibiotic resistance? How/why does it occur? 67. Why do you have to get some vaccines every year instead of only once?