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Transcript
Early Ideas
Natural
Darwin’s
About
Observations Selection
Evolution
Evidence
of
Evolution
Evolutionary
Biology
Today
10
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30
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Question 1 - 10
• Traces of organisms that existed in the past
Answer 1 – 10
• Fossils
Question 1 - 20
• This theory states that natural disasters such
as floods and volcanic eruptions shaped
Earth’s landforms and caused extinction of
some species
Answer 1 – 20
• Catastrophism
Question 1 - 30
• This principle states that the changes in
landforms result from slow changes over a
long period of time
Answer 1 – 30
• Gradualism
Question 1 - 40
• An expanded version of the theory of
gradualism – this theory states that the
geologic processes that shape Earth are the
same through time. Small geologic changes
add up over a long time.
Answer 1 – 40
• Uniformitarianism
Question 1 - 50
• Name the scientist who had the following
theories:
– Species shared ancestors instead of arising
separately
– Believed in the inheritance of acquired
characteristics
– All living things were descended from a common
ancestor and that more-complex forms of life
arose from less complex forms
Answer 1 – 50
• Buffon
• Lamarck
• E. Darwin
Question 2 - 10
• Differences in physical traits of an individual
from the group to which it belongs
Answer 2 – 10
• Variation
Question 2 - 20
• An inherited trait that is selected for over time
because it allows organisms to better survive
in their environment
Answer 2 – 20
• Adaptation
Question 2 - 30
• A variation that occurs among members of the
SAME species
Answer 2 – 30
• Intraspecific variation
Question 2 - 40
• A variation that occurs among members of a
DIFFERENT species
Answer 2 – 40
• Interspecific variation
Question 2 - 50
• Name the islands off of the coast of South
America where Darwin gathered a great deal
of evidence to support his theory and give two
examples of organisms that showed evolution
taking place.
Answer 2 – 50
• Galapagos Islands
•
•
•
•
Tortoises
Finches
Marine Iguanas
Etc.
Question 3 - 10
• Process by which humans modify a species by
breeding it for certain traits
Answer 3 – 10
• Artificial Selection
Question 3 - 20
• Mechanism by which individuals that have
inherited beneficial adaptations produce more
offspring on average than do other individuals
Answer 3 – 20
• Natural Selection
Question 3 - 30
• The ability of a trait to be passed down from
one generation to the next
Answer 3 – 30
• Heritability
Question 3 - 40
• A measure of the ability to survive and
produce more offspring relative to other
members of the population in a given
environment
Answer 3 – 40
• Fitness
Question 3 - 50
• Name the four main principles of the theory
of Natural Selection
Answer 3 – 50
•
•
•
•
Variation
Overproduction
Adaptation
Descent with Modification
Question 4 - 10
• The study of the distribution of organisms
around the world
Answer 4 – 10
• Biogeography
Question 4 - 20
• The study of the early developmental stages
of an organism to determine similarities and
differences in species indicating that evolution
has taken place
Answer 4 – 20
• Embryology
Question 4 - 30
• Remnants of an organ or structure that
functioned in an earlier ancestor
Answer 4 – 30
• Vestigial structure
Question 4 - 40
• Body part that is similar in structure on
different organisms but performs different
functions
Answer 4 – 40
• Homologous structure
Question 4 - 50
• Body part that is similar in function as a body
part of another organism but is structurally
different
Answer 4 – 50
• Analogous structure
Question 5 - 10
• The study of fossils or extinct organisms that
continues to provide new information and
support current hypotheses about how
evolution occurs.
Answer 5 – 10
• Paleontology
Question 5 - 20
• The process of analyzing the sequences of
nucleotides in a gene and how they have
changed over time due to mutations. It
provides evidence that evolution takes place.
Answer 5 – 20
• DNA sequence analysis
Question 5 - 30
• Sequences of DNA nucleotides that no longer
function but are still carried along with
functional DNA.
Answer 5 – 30
• Pseudogenes
Question 5 - 40
• Genes that control the development of
specific structures
Answer 5 – 40
• Homeobox genes
Question 5 - 50
• Also known as molecular fingerprinting, this
process reveals similarities in proteins of
different organisms providing evidence of
evolution.
Answer 5 – 50
• Protein comparisons