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10.1 Early Ideas About Evolution
Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution.
is the biological
change process by which
descendants come to differ
from their ancestors.
A species is a group of
organisms that can reproduce
and have fertile offspring.
There were many important naturalists in the 18th
classification system from kingdom to
Buffon: species shared ancestors rather than
arising separately
E. Darwin: more-complex forms developed from
less complex forms
Lamarck: environmental change leads to use or
disuse of a structure
Theories of geologic change set the stage for
Darwin’ s theory.
were three theories of geologic change. p300
is the prevailing theory
of geologic change. (key to the past)
10.4 Evidence of Evolution
Evidence for evolution in Darwin’s time came from
several sources.
in older layers are more primitive than those in the
upper layers.
 The
study of geography provides evidence of evolution.
island species most closely resemble nearest mainland species
populations can show variation from one island to another
 Biogeography
– the study of the distribution
of organisms around the
provides evidence of evolution. p311
larvae, different adult body forms
embryos, diverse organisms
"the unborn, embryo“ is the branch of
biology that studies the development of gametes (sex
cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and
study of anatomy provides evidence of evolution.
structures are similar in structure but
different in function.
structures have different
structure, similar function.
structures are not evidence
of a common ancestor.
Structural patterns are clues to the history of a species.
structures are remnants of organs or
structures that had a function in an early
 Ostrich
wings are examples of vestigial structures.
10.5 Evolutionary Biology Today
Fossils provide a record of evolution.
is the study of fossils or
extinct organisms.
Molecular and genetic evidence support fossil
and anatomical evidence.
 Two
Sequence Analysis
closely-related organisms will have similar DNA sequences.
providing evidence of evolution.
no longer function
carried along with functional DNA
can be clues to a common ancestor
indicate a very distant
common ancestor.
from different species that
have the same proteins most likely
have common ancestors.
Evolution unites all fields of biology
from any fields contribute to
the understanding of evolution.
basic principles of evolution are
used in many scientific fields.