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11. Evolution Name: __________________________ Living Environment Mr. Wiley 144 I. Evolution brainstorm Evolution II. Myths about evolution 1. 2. 3. III. The Theory of Evolution Theory- Evolution- Evolutionary Theory- Who is Charles Darwin and what does he have to do with evolution? IV. Evidence for Evolution What evidence of evolution do we have? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. Natural Selection Natural Selection- Survival of the fittest! What does survival of the fittest mean? Rules for Natural Selection 1. 2. 3. 4. What is artificial selection? Artificial selection- Also called Examples of artificial selection: Is it Natural Selection (NS) or Artificial Selection (AS)? 1. A flower evolves to have brighter petals so it attracts more bees. 2. A species of cat is bred to shed less fur. 3. A giraffe with a longer neck survives because it can reach its food source. 4. A sheep is bred to produce more wool for making clothes. 5. A female lion chooses to mate with the male lion who has the biggest mane. 2. Fossil Records What are fossils? A B Which layer of rock is the oldest? _________ Which layer of rock has the newest fossils? ________ Which layer of rock has the simplest species? _______ D Which layer of rock has the most complex species? ________ E 3. Comparative Biochemistry C Compare the amino acid sequences below to determine which species is most related to the human. Species Amino Acid Sequence # of Differences HUMAN LYS GLU HIS ISO HORSE ARG LYS HIS LYS GORILLA LYS GLU HIS LYS CHIMPANZEE LYS GLU HIS ISO ZEBRA ARG LYS HIS ARG 4. Comparative Embryology Embryology- 5. Comparative Anatomy Anatomy- Type of structure: Homologous Structures- Diagram Analogous Structures- Vestigial Structures- Is it Homologous structure (HS), Analogous Structure (AS) or Vestigial Structure (VS)? 1. Wing from a bat and fin of a whale. _________ 2. The appendix in humans. _________ 3. Fins of a shark and fins from a dolphin. _________ 4. Wings from a bat and wings from a wasp. _________ 5. Opposable thumbs in chimpanzees and humans. _________ V. Tools used by Evolutionary Scientists What tools do evolutionary scientists use to classify organisms and show evolutionary patterns? 1. 2. 1. Cladogram Cladogram- Common ancestor- How can you tell if two organisms are closely related on a cladogram? Use the cladogram to the right to answer the following questions I F G H Who is the common ancestor for ALL of these organisms (F-K)? ________ Common ancestor for G & I? ________ C Common ancestor for F & G? ________ B Common ancestor for D & E? ________ A The diagram to the right shows the line for organism A stopping well before organisms B, C and D. Why is this? What does it mean? K E D Common ancestor for I & J? ________ J 2. Dichotomous keys Dichotomous Key- Rules for building a Dichotomous Key 1. 2. 3. 4. VI. Regents questions 1. Which statement represents the major concept of the biological theory of evolution? a. b. c. d. 2. A new species moves into habitats when another species becomes extinct. Every period of time in Earth’s history has its own group of organisms. Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms. Every location on Earth’s surface has its own unique group of organisms. Woolly mammoths became extinct thousands of years ago, while other species of mammals that existed at that time still exist today. These other species of mammals most likely exist today because, unlike mammoths, they a. b. c. d. produced offspring that all had identical inheritable characteristics did not face a struggle for survival learned to migrate to new environments had certain inheritable traits that enabled them to survive. 3. Which characteristic is necessary for natural selection to occur in a species? a. b. c. d. stability variation complex cellular organization very low mutation rate 4. According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and reproduce? a. Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes. b. Some individuals are better adapted to exist in their environment than others are. c. Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes. d. Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment. 5. Ancestors of the giant panda had round paws with five very short toes. Today, the giant panda has a sixth toe, often referred to as a thumb, even though it develops from a wrist bone. This unique thumb is an adaptation that allows the panda to easily hold and eat bamboo shoots. The presence of the giant panda’s thumb is most likely the result of: a. natural selection b. selective breeding c. asexual reproduction d. ecological succession 6. The graph shows changes in the percentage of vancomycin-resistant bacteria in a population between the years 1983 and 2001. Explain why the percentage of resistant bacteria increases over time. __________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. The accompanying diagram shows the bones in the forelimbs of three different organisms. Differences in the bone arrangements support the hypothesis that these organisms: a. b. c. d. Are members of the same species May have descended from a common ancestor Have adaptations to survive in different environments All contain the same genetic information 8. The presence of similar structures in all vertebrates (having a backbone) suggests that these vertebrates: a. b. c. d. All developed at the same rate Evolved from different animals that appeared on Earth at the same time All develop internally and rely on nutrients supplied by the mother May have an evolutionary relationship 9. The diagram below shows the evolution of some different species of flowers. Which statement about the species is correct? a. b. c. d. Species A, B, C, and D came from a different ancestors. Species C evolved from Species B. Species A, B, and C can interbreed successfully. Species A became extinct. Base your answer to questions 10 and 11 on the diagram to the right. 10. Based on the analysis of the differences in amino acid sequences of one kind of protein, scientists prepared the evolutionary tree shown below. According to this diagram, is the pig more closely related to the dog or the kangaroo? Justify your answer. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 11. According to this diagram, the DNA of which pair of organisms would show the greatest similarity? a. b. c. d. penguin and turtle horse and donkey snake and tuna turtle and rabbit 12. The diagram illustrates a proposed evolutionary path of certain organisms, based on the theory of evolution. Which statement could best be inferred from the information in this diagram? a. b. c. d. Evolution does not involve gradual change. Evolutionary changes can result in extinction. Evolution began with plants. Evolution produces organisms that all fill the same niche.