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Transcript
11. Evolution
Name: __________________________
Living Environment
Mr. Wiley 144
I.
Evolution brainstorm
Evolution
II.
Myths about evolution
1.
2.
3.
III.
The Theory of Evolution
Theory-
Evolution-
Evolutionary Theory-
Who is Charles Darwin and what does he have to do with evolution?
IV.
Evidence for Evolution
What evidence of evolution do we have?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1. Natural Selection
Natural Selection-



Survival of the fittest! What does survival of the fittest mean?
Rules for Natural Selection
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is artificial selection?


Artificial selection-

Also called
Examples of artificial selection:
Is it Natural Selection (NS) or Artificial Selection (AS)?
1. A flower evolves to have brighter petals so it attracts more bees.
2. A species of cat is bred to shed less fur.
3. A giraffe with a longer neck survives because it can reach its food source.
4. A sheep is bred to produce more wool for making clothes.
5. A female lion chooses to mate with the male lion who has the biggest mane.
2. Fossil Records

What are fossils?
A
B

Which layer of rock is the oldest? _________

Which layer of rock has the newest fossils? ________

Which layer of rock has the simplest species? _______
D

Which layer of rock has the most complex species? ________
E
3. Comparative Biochemistry


C
Compare the amino acid sequences below to determine which species is most related to the human.
Species
Amino Acid Sequence # of Differences
HUMAN
LYS GLU HIS ISO
HORSE
ARG LYS HIS LYS
GORILLA
LYS GLU HIS LYS
CHIMPANZEE LYS GLU HIS ISO
ZEBRA
ARG LYS HIS ARG
4. Comparative Embryology

Embryology-

5. Comparative Anatomy
 Anatomy-

Type of structure:
Homologous Structures-
Diagram
Analogous Structures-
Vestigial Structures-
Is it Homologous structure (HS), Analogous Structure (AS) or Vestigial Structure (VS)?
1. Wing from a bat and fin of a whale. _________
2. The appendix in humans. _________
3. Fins of a shark and fins from a dolphin. _________
4. Wings from a bat and wings from a wasp. _________
5. Opposable thumbs in chimpanzees and humans. _________
V.
Tools used by Evolutionary Scientists
What tools do evolutionary scientists use to classify organisms and show evolutionary patterns?
1.
2.
1. Cladogram
Cladogram-
Common ancestor-
How can you tell if two organisms are closely related on a cladogram?
Use the cladogram to the right to answer the following questions
I
F G H
Who is the common ancestor for ALL of these organisms (F-K)? ________
Common ancestor for G & I? ________
C
Common ancestor for F & G? ________
B
Common ancestor for D & E? ________
A
The diagram to the right shows the line for organism A stopping
well before organisms B, C and D. Why is this? What does it mean?
K
E
D
Common ancestor for I & J? ________
J
2. Dichotomous keys
Dichotomous Key-
Rules for building a Dichotomous Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
VI.
Regents questions
1. Which statement represents the major concept of the biological theory of evolution?
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
A new species moves into habitats when another species becomes extinct.
Every period of time in Earth’s history has its own group of organisms.
Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms.
Every location on Earth’s surface has its own unique group of organisms.
Woolly mammoths became extinct thousands of years ago, while other species of mammals that existed at that
time still exist today. These other species of mammals most likely exist today because, unlike mammoths, they
a.
b.
c.
d.
produced offspring that all had identical inheritable characteristics
did not face a struggle for survival
learned to migrate to new environments
had certain inheritable traits that enabled them to survive.
3. Which characteristic is necessary for natural selection to occur in a species?
a.
b.
c.
d.
stability
variation
complex cellular organization
very low mutation rate
4. According to the theory of natural selection, why are some individuals more likely than others to survive and
reproduce?
a. Some individuals pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their lifetimes.
b. Some individuals are better adapted to exist in their environment than others are.
c. Some individuals do not pass on to their offspring new characteristics they have acquired during their
lifetimes.
d. Some individuals tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the same environment.
5. Ancestors of the giant panda had round paws with five very short toes. Today, the giant panda has a sixth toe, often
referred to as a thumb, even though it develops from a wrist bone. This unique thumb is an adaptation that allows the
panda to easily hold and eat bamboo shoots. The presence of the giant panda’s thumb is most likely the result of:
a. natural selection
b. selective breeding
c. asexual reproduction
d. ecological succession
6. The graph shows changes in the percentage of vancomycin-resistant bacteria in a population between the years 1983
and 2001.
Explain why the percentage of resistant bacteria increases over time.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. The accompanying diagram shows the bones in the forelimbs of three
different organisms. Differences in the bone arrangements support the
hypothesis that these organisms:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Are members of the same species
May have descended from a common ancestor
Have adaptations to survive in different environments
All contain the same genetic information
8. The presence of similar structures in all vertebrates (having a backbone) suggests that these vertebrates:
a.
b.
c.
d.
All developed at the same rate
Evolved from different animals that appeared on Earth at the same time
All develop internally and rely on nutrients supplied by the mother
May have an evolutionary relationship
9. The diagram below shows the evolution of some different species of
flowers. Which statement about the species is correct?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Species A, B, C, and D came from a different ancestors.
Species C evolved from Species B.
Species A, B, and C can interbreed successfully.
Species A became extinct.
Base your answer to questions 10 and 11 on the diagram to the right.
10. Based on the analysis of the differences in amino acid
sequences of one kind of protein, scientists prepared the
evolutionary tree shown below. According to this
diagram, is the pig more closely related to the dog or the
kangaroo? Justify your answer.
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
11. According to this diagram, the DNA of which pair of
organisms would show the greatest similarity?
a.
b.
c.
d.
penguin and turtle
horse and donkey
snake and tuna
turtle and rabbit
12. The diagram illustrates a proposed evolutionary path of
certain organisms, based on the theory of evolution. Which
statement could best be inferred from the information in this
diagram?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Evolution does not involve gradual change.
Evolutionary changes can result in extinction.
Evolution began with plants.
Evolution produces organisms that all fill the same
niche.