Chapter 22 Descent With Modification: A Darwinian View of Life I. The History Of Evolutionary Thought • A. Early Scientists: – 1.________ -Scala naturae-ladder – 2.Natural _________ (1700’s) perfect species designed by God.(adaptations proved perfection) – 3._______ (1707-78) founded _______, the science of naming and classifying organisms according to their pattern of creation. – 4.Cuvier (1769-1832) founded the science of ___________ as he documented the succession of fossil specimens around Paris. He believed in __________, the idea that the layers of the earth corresponded to major catastrophes. – 5.________ (1726-97) proposed ____________-slow erosive processes shaped the earth. – 6._____ (1797-1875) proposed uniformitarianism-geology must be explained by current processes (erosion, mountain building) – 7.__________(174 4-1829) theory of evolution based on the faulty ideas of “use and disuse” and “inheritance of acquired traits”. • B. ______ ________(1809-1882), The Father of Evolutionary Theory. – 1.His voyage on the _______ altered his perspective: • Noticed great diversity • Organisms in S. America resembled W. African organisms. • Saw fossils • Studied Galapagos animals. • Read Lyell’s book. • 2.Wrote the book, On the Origin of Species. • 3.Coined the phrase, “_______ ___ ________”, to mean that all organisms are related and evolved from __________ ancestors. • C.Darwin’s Theory: – 1._____________ is differential reproductive success. – 2.N.S. occurs through the __________ between the environment and the variation amongst individuals. – 3.________ to the environment is the result of N.S. 4. ________________ , farmers selecting for desirable traits, lent evidence to Darwin’s theory: • All these vegetables have a common ancestor: wild mustard, A.S. has allowed farmers to produce the variety seen here. • D.Some important points: – 1.____________ acts on a _________, not on individuals! – 2.Evolution can only act on ________ variations. The best theories are supported by multiple lines of _______, have a __________ explanation and are ____________. 1._________:fossils, molecular biology, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, biogeography 2.______ ___________:(Mechanisms) a.Natural Selection b.Mutation 3._______ ________:Ability to make predictions from available evidence. II. Evidence of Evolution • A. _______ Evidence: – Predation in guppies results in drab color… – Appearance of new viruses and bacteria B. The ___________ is consistent with other lines of evidence and provides predictable evidence. • C. Evidence from homology and convergent evolution also support evolution. – 1.__________structures are modified for different functions but have similar anatomy. 2.________ organs are anatomical structures that serve no purpose. They are primary proofs of evolution because they show that old useless genes are still around. – 3. __________ provide some of the most compelling evidence for evolution. The Panda’s Thumb… • 4.___________ evolution explains how distantly related species may resemble each other. Structure may be ____________, not homologous(wing of a butterfly/bird) • D.Studies of ____________, the geographical distribution of species, lends further evidence. – Continental drift explains a lot! – Endemic species are found in one place only! • E. Comparative ___________ shows that closely related organisms undergo similar _______________ development. •F. ________________ have predictive power and strongly support evolutionary biology. – 1.__________ language of DNA/RNA – 2.Evolutionary _____________ among species are reflected in their DNA and the ____________ produced from it.