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Transcript
Chapter 22
Descent With
Modification:
A Darwinian View of
Life
I. The History Of Evolutionary
Thought
• A. Early Scientists:
– 1.________ -Scala
naturae-ladder
– 2.Natural _________
(1700’s) perfect species
designed by
God.(adaptations proved
perfection)
– 3._______ (1707-78)
founded _______, the
science of naming and
classifying organisms
according to their pattern
of creation.
– 4.Cuvier (1769-1832) founded the science of
___________ as he documented the succession
of fossil specimens around Paris. He believed
in __________, the idea that the layers of the
earth corresponded to major catastrophes.
– 5.________ (1726-97) proposed ____________-slow erosive processes shaped the earth.
– 6._____ (1797-1875) proposed uniformitarianism-geology must be explained by current processes
(erosion, mountain building)
– 7.__________(174
4-1829) theory of
evolution based on
the faulty ideas of
“use and disuse”
and “inheritance of
acquired traits”.
• B. ______ ________(1809-1882), The Father of
Evolutionary Theory.
– 1.His voyage on the _______
altered his perspective:
• Noticed great diversity
• Organisms in S. America
resembled W. African organisms.
• Saw fossils
• Studied Galapagos animals.
• Read Lyell’s book.
• 2.Wrote the book, On the Origin of Species.
• 3.Coined the phrase, “_______ ___ ________”, to
mean that all organisms are related and evolved from
__________ ancestors.
• C.Darwin’s Theory:
– 1._____________ is differential reproductive success.
– 2.N.S. occurs through the __________ between the
environment and the variation amongst individuals.
– 3.________ to the environment is the result of N.S.
4. ________________ , farmers selecting for
desirable traits, lent evidence to Darwin’s theory:
• All these vegetables have a common ancestor: wild
mustard, A.S. has allowed farmers to produce the variety
seen here.
• D.Some important points:
– 1.____________ acts on a _________, not on
individuals!
– 2.Evolution can only act on ________ variations.
The best theories are supported by multiple
lines of _______, have a __________
explanation and are ____________.
1._________:fossils, molecular biology,
comparative anatomy, comparative
embryology, biogeography
2.______ ___________:(Mechanisms)
a.Natural Selection
b.Mutation
3._______ ________:Ability to make
predictions from available evidence.
II. Evidence of Evolution
• A. _______
Evidence:
– Predation in
guppies results
in drab color…
– Appearance of
new viruses
and bacteria
B. The ___________
is consistent with
other lines of
evidence and
provides
predictable
evidence.
• C. Evidence from homology and convergent
evolution also support evolution.
– 1.__________structures are modified for different
functions but have similar anatomy.
2.________ organs are anatomical structures
that serve no purpose. They are primary proofs
of evolution because they show that old useless
genes are still around.
– 3. __________ provide some of the most
compelling evidence for evolution.
The Panda’s Thumb…
• 4.___________ evolution explains how distantly
related species may resemble each other. Structure
may be ____________, not homologous(wing of a
butterfly/bird)
• D.Studies of ____________, the
geographical distribution of species, lends
further evidence.
– Continental drift explains a lot!
– Endemic species are found in one place only!
• E. Comparative ___________ shows that
closely related organisms undergo similar
_______________ development.
•F. ________________ have predictive power
and strongly support evolutionary biology.
– 1.__________
language of
DNA/RNA
– 2.Evolutionary
_____________
among species are
reflected in their
DNA and the
____________
produced from it.