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Transcript
Study Guide for Examination I, Biology 122, Spring ‘16
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The Scienctific Process
Inductive, Deductive Logic
Evolutionary Theory
i. Evidence that lead Darwin to inductive reasoning concerning mechanisms of
evolution
ii. Modern evidence that supports the theory of Evolution
iii. Homology vs Analogy in evolution (convergent evolution vs evolution by
descent)
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Chemistry Basics
Atomic structure, energy levels (shells), electron orbitals, electron configurations of atoms,
covalent bonds
Weak bonds (H bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic forces, Van der Waals attractions)
Water chemistry (pH, h bonds, polar solvent characteristics, other water characteristics)
Redox reactions
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Biomolecules
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, Proteins
Protein Structure (1o – 4o structure), main chain atoms and amino acid sidecahins
Alpha helices, beta sheets, loops, turns as elements of 2o structure – h bonding of main chain
atoms
Weak bonds in providing protein 3o structure (hydrophobic, salt bridges [ionic bonds], H bonds,
Van der Waals attractions
Disuphide bridges (cysteine S-S bonds)
Cell Structure, Cell Membranes
Endomembrane system, nucleus, cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, mitochondria, chloroplasts
Diffusion and osmosis, concentration gradients
Mechanisms of Transport (active and passive), coupled transport, pumps, transporters, ion
channels
Lipid bilayers, fluid mosaic model of membranes
Enzymes as Catalysts
Active sites, cofactors, competitive vs non-competitive inhibition, allosteric regulation of activity,
lowering of activation energy of reactions that they catalyze
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Energy, Thermodynamics
1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics
energy transfer, importance of ATP structure in serving as an energy currency molecule
delta G0, delta G, and the importance of delta enthalpy (H) and delta entropy (S) in determining
reaction spontaneity or non-sponteneity
biological factors that make delta G different that delta G0 – the push-pull of biochemical
pathways
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Biochemical Pathways
Catabolism vs Anabolism
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Glycolysis, Cellular Respiration
Stepwise oxidation of glucose = catabolism of glucose
Phases of Glycolysis, products of Glycolysis, net yields of energy molecules – location of
pathway
Role of NAD+, NADH, FAD, FADH2 as electron carriers (redox reactions)
Pyruvate oxidation under aerobic conditions, pyruvate fermentation under anaerobic conditions –
net yields of important energy molecules – location of pathway
Krebs (aka Citric Acid) Cycle, net yields of energy molecules – location of pathway
Role of Coenzyme A (CoA)
Substrate level phosphorylation of ADP to produce ATP
Mitochondrial structure
Electron transport chain (ETC), role of NADH, FADH2 in donating electrons to ETC, where
located, function of ETC complexes and electron carriers, production of H+ gradient across inner
mitochondrial membrane, net H+ pumping caused by electrons donated by NADH,
FADH2, role of oxygen in ETC (1/2 O2 + e- + H+ >>> H2O)
ATP Synthase – where located, structure, function in using H+ gradient to synthesize ATP
(oxidative phosphorylation), net yield of ATP/turn of the rotor complex
Overall balance sheet of ATP yield in Glycolysis + Pyruvate Oxidation + Krebs Cycle +
Oxidative Phosphorylation
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Note Bene: if you study the cinelectures and use the links of various activities on the course syllabus and
have paid attention and taken notes on our active learning exercises in class, you should obtain a good
understanding of the above concepts. If you wish, you can review the end-of-chapter summaries in the
Openstax text to see if you are comprehending the major concepts. If you are using the Openstax text
exclusively instead of using the cinelectures, this is also a good idea. – I would suggest at least 5-6 hours
of studying the course material for this exam.