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Development: Where are T-cells produced? Where does maturation take place? Name the major populations of T-cells. T-cell Recognition/Antigen presentation How do T-cells recognize antigens what is the specific receptor? Describe the main steps of antigen presentation What is the role of MHC-I? Which cells express MHC-I? Where do the presented peptides come from? What is the role of proteasome? What type of T-cells are MHC-I restricted (recognize MHC-I /peptide complexes) What is the fate of the APC? Describe the role of MHC II ! Expression pattern? Where do the presented peptides come from? Why proteasome-derived peptides fail to bind MHCII in the ER ? Describe the role of the invariant chain! Why does MHCII have 2 chains? (consider attachment of the invariant chain that prevents binding of proteasome derived peptides ) Are both self and foreign peptides presented by APCs simultaneously? Is there antigen presentation in the absence of infection? Do APCs present antigens in the absence of T-cells? Are different peptides presented by a single APC simultaneously? How does (or does it) the immune system sense if a cell just slightly or heavily infected? Structure of TCR compare the structure of TCR with that of the BCR! (soluble antibody, number of binding sites, no soluble form for TCR) T-cell response How many antigen(s) is/are recognized by a single T-cell? How many antigen(s) is/are recognized by the entire pool of T-cells in our body? What happens to: antigen-specific antigen non-specific, or autoreactive T cells ? Define the term “naïve” (T – or B-cell Where are the foreign peptides first presented to T cells? What is clonal expansion? Where are pathogens located during the process of clonal expansion? (it may vary depending on how bad, wide-spread the infection is) Define the term effector T-cell! Where do effector T-cells meet the antigen? Compare naïve and effector T-cells based on localization cell number T cell functions What is the function of cytotoxic T cells?? What is the function of cytotoxic T cells in general?? What type of immune reactions (effector mechanisms) are required to combat and eliminate intracellular- (virus, bacterium) extracellular (bacteria, fungi, parasites) pathogens? Which T-helper population is activated the most in response to intracellular-, extracellular pathogens, parasites? WThere and when is it decided whether a naïve T-cell is going to develop into a TH1, TH2, Th17 effector cell? Cytokine microenvironment: (IL12, IFNy, IL4, IL1-6 need to know no more yet) , List the so-called “signature cytokines” of the various Th cell populations! Describe the effect of these signature cytokines on the differentiation of the other T-cell subsets and to the subsets that had produced them. (role of IL-4, IFNy, and IL17 )! The names and the function of the inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL1, IL6, IL12 and type I IFNs are also required for the test The names of chemokines, selectins and integrins are not required for the first Self Control Test!!