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Roman Expansion Notes
Name _______________________ #______
Chapter 34
Secrets of Rome’s Success
#1 Diplomacy As Rome conquered other countries, they made
treaties with them and gave them some rights. This
discouraged them from rebelling.
#2 Geography Rome’s location in the middle of the Mediterranean
Sea made it easy to send soldiers by ship to conquer
new lands.
#3 Military
The Romans created a huge, well-trained army that
could defeat just about anybody.
#4 Roads
The well-built Roman roads allowed the army to march quickly from one
place to another as well as receive supplies and send messages back to
Italian Peninsula: 509-264 BC/BCE
• The Romans made an alliance with the Latins and conquered the Etruscans.
• By 264 BC/BCE Rome had conquered the whole Italian Peninsula.
Punic Wars: 264-146 BC/BCE
• “Punic” is the Latin word for the Phoenicians, the great sailors and traders who set
up colonies all over the Mediterranean. During this time period the Phoenician city
of Carthage in North Africa ruled the Phoenician colonies.
• 1st Punic War: Carthage had a powerful navy. Rome captured a Carthaginian ship to
figure out how to build better and stronger Roman ships. They won the war at sea.
RESULT = Rome took Sicily
• 2nd Punic War: Hannibal of Carthage (one of the greatest military generals of all
time) marched his army and elephants from Spain, over the Alps, and into Italy.
Hannibal fought the Romans for 15 years, but lost the war when Rome invaded
Carthage. RESULT = Rome took Spain
• 3rd Punic War: Rome attacked Carthage and burned it to the ground. RESULT =
Rome took North Africa
End of the Republic: 145-44 BC/BCE
• Managing such a huge area required high taxes and many men to serve in the army.
• As new lands were conquered, slaves were brought back to Rome to do all the work.
Also, the rich people were buying up all the land so small farmers couldn’t compete.
There weren’t enough jobs for the poor citizens and farmers, so they flooded the city
of Rome.
• Julius Caesar conquered Gaul (modern-day France) and marched into Rome. The
Senate gave him the title “Dictator for Life,” which officially ended the Republic.
Caesar was stabbed to death by senators on March 15, 44 BC/BCE because they
thought he had too much power.
Roman Empire: 44 BC/BCE – 14 AD/CE
• After Julius Caesar’s death, his great-nephew, Octavian, and one of his favorite
generals, Marc Antony, took power.
• Octavian and Marc Antony didn’t get along and fought a naval battle called the
Battle of Actium. Octavian won and became sole ruler of the Roman Empire.
• Octavian was given the title “Augustus” by the Senate, which means “first citizen.”
This officially made Octavian/Augustus emperor. He started a 200-year period that
was called the “Pax Romana” (Roman Peace) because there were fewer wars and
trade expanded, which brought wealth to the Empire.
• Eventually, Rome expanded to include the entire Mediterranean region.