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 Occupied
a plain north of Rome in a
region called Etruria.
 They expanded their territory and
eventually beat Rome with their superior
• Compulsory military service vs. volunteer with
limited weapons
 They
ruled for over 100 years until the
last Etruscan ruler (Tarquin the Proud)
was overthrown by the Romans.
 From the Etruscans, the Romans learned:
• How to use the arch
• Build huge aqueducts
• Construct harbors
• Urban drainage systems
• Walled cities
• Some religious beliefs
• Alphabet (which later formed the basis of
English, French, Italian and Spanish)
• Compulsory military service
 Following
the overthrow of Tarquin the
Proud, the Romans were determined
never again to be ruled by oppressive
 They chose a form of government called
a republic where citizens elect
representatives to run everything.
• In the beginning only members of a noble family
could hold office
 The
republic lasted for almost 500 years.
 They
spent much of their early history
defending their fertile land from attacks.
 They began to change their ideas about
defense and significantly modified their
military organization.
• No longer needed to recruit when the city was
• Any citizen who owned land had to undergo
training and serve in the army
• They also began paying their soldiers
 Troops
were organized into legions of
4000 to 5000 men.
 Originally 4 legions with more added if
seriously threatened.
 Each legion was divided into 4 smaller
units or companies.
 Rome
fought for control of the Italian
peninsula and by 265 BCE, they
controlled all of Italy.
 Following each conquest, Rome made
allies of the defeated populations by
adopting a policy of fair treatment and
 Unlike
other conquerors (Egyptians and
Persians), the Romans took only a portion
of the conquered lands and allowed the
conquered people to keep the rest.
 People were also allowed to keep their
own customs, government and laws,
though they had to acknowledge Roman
 Rome did not take slaves.
 It
started to fall apart shortly after it
 There was a widening difference
between the wealthy and poor which led
to vicious power struggles.
 The Senate represented the wealthy and
the Assembly represented the common
 For
almost a hundred years various
would-be leaders tried to seize power
through wars, plots, assassinations and
mass murders.
 Control over the army became the key to
 Removed
the requirement of owning land
 Also made the army a full-time
 Soldiers were supplied with all their
weapons and clothing.
 For signing up for a 16 (later 20) year
term, soldiers expected a piece of the
valuables collected and a piece of land.
 Describe
the rise and fall of Julius
 How did Octavian become the first
emperor of Rome?
 Describe Octavian’s (Augustus) reign.
 Exercised
almost total power with the
approval and goodwill of the Senate,
which remained influential throughout
the period.
 No emperor ruled quite as successfully
as Octavian did.
• Because of this, all emperors who followed were
given the name Augustus in addition to their own
 The
Roman empire was divided into
provinces, each about the size of a small
modern country.
• Britain was one province
• Gaul or modern France was four provinces
• Spain was two provinces
 Highest
ranking official was the
 Each province was allowed to govern
 Town
Council officials and mayors were
elected every year.
 Two mayors kept each other honest.
 To be considered, candidates needed to
own land.
 They administered public services such
as police and fire protection, water
supply, drainage, roads, markets,
temples, festivals and public
 Laws
were written on 12 bronze tablets
and set up in the Forum for all to see.
 The laws covered everything from wills,
property rights, court cases and even
public behavior of citizens.
 The Law of the Twelve Tablets remained
the foundation of Roman civil and
criminal law for a thousand years.