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Occupied a plain north of Rome in a region called Etruria. They expanded their territory and eventually beat Rome with their superior armies. • Compulsory military service vs. volunteer with limited weapons They ruled for over 100 years until the last Etruscan ruler (Tarquin the Proud) was overthrown by the Romans. From the Etruscans, the Romans learned: • How to use the arch • Build huge aqueducts • Construct harbors • Urban drainage systems • Walled cities • Some religious beliefs • Alphabet (which later formed the basis of English, French, Italian and Spanish) • Compulsory military service Following the overthrow of Tarquin the Proud, the Romans were determined never again to be ruled by oppressive kings. They chose a form of government called a republic where citizens elect representatives to run everything. • In the beginning only members of a noble family could hold office The republic lasted for almost 500 years. They spent much of their early history defending their fertile land from attacks. They began to change their ideas about defense and significantly modified their military organization. • No longer needed to recruit when the city was threatened • Any citizen who owned land had to undergo training and serve in the army • They also began paying their soldiers Troops were organized into legions of 4000 to 5000 men. Originally 4 legions with more added if seriously threatened. Each legion was divided into 4 smaller units or companies. Rome fought for control of the Italian peninsula and by 265 BCE, they controlled all of Italy. Following each conquest, Rome made allies of the defeated populations by adopting a policy of fair treatment and leniency. Unlike other conquerors (Egyptians and Persians), the Romans took only a portion of the conquered lands and allowed the conquered people to keep the rest. People were also allowed to keep their own customs, government and laws, though they had to acknowledge Roman leadership. Rome did not take slaves. It started to fall apart shortly after it began. There was a widening difference between the wealthy and poor which led to vicious power struggles. The Senate represented the wealthy and the Assembly represented the common people. For almost a hundred years various would-be leaders tried to seize power through wars, plots, assassinations and mass murders. Control over the army became the key to success. Removed the requirement of owning land Also made the army a full-time profession. Soldiers were supplied with all their weapons and clothing. For signing up for a 16 (later 20) year term, soldiers expected a piece of the valuables collected and a piece of land. Describe the rise and fall of Julius Caesar. How did Octavian become the first emperor of Rome? Describe Octavian’s (Augustus) reign. Exercised almost total power with the approval and goodwill of the Senate, which remained influential throughout the period. No emperor ruled quite as successfully as Octavian did. • Because of this, all emperors who followed were given the name Augustus in addition to their own The Roman empire was divided into provinces, each about the size of a small modern country. • Britain was one province • Gaul or modern France was four provinces • Spain was two provinces Highest ranking official was the governor. Each province was allowed to govern itself. Town Council officials and mayors were elected every year. Two mayors kept each other honest. To be considered, candidates needed to own land. They administered public services such as police and fire protection, water supply, drainage, roads, markets, temples, festivals and public entertainment. Laws were written on 12 bronze tablets and set up in the Forum for all to see. The laws covered everything from wills, property rights, court cases and even public behavior of citizens. The Law of the Twelve Tablets remained the foundation of Roman civil and criminal law for a thousand years.