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Transcript
HISTORY
“A Belgian alchemist and physician, Johannes van Helmont (1579-1644) first used the term
“gas” to denote “wild spirits” that could be neither constrained by vessles nor recuded to a
bisible body. He described a number of different gases, notably that produced from the
burning of charcoal, the fermentation of wine, and the action of distilled vinegar on
limestone, and in emanations from mineral waters. This was, of course, what we now
know as carbon dioxide.”
Joseph Black (1728-1799) “showed that "Magnesia Alba" (magne- sium carbonate) is a
compound of an alkaline earth and a gas which he called "fixed air." This was the same gas
that was released in the treatment of chalk with acid, in fermenting alcohol, and in burning
charcoal. It combined with quicklime to produce a chalky noncaustic material. In studying
its properties he found that a burning candle was extinguished when dipped into fixed air,
as was the flame of a burning paper. Small animals placed in fixed air did not survive. The
air produced in respiration was in part fixed air, which was heavier than common air. “
“Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) to determine the composition of Black's fixed air. He
showed that oxygen, which he at first called "eminently respirable air," combines with
carbon to produce a substance he named "chalky aeroform acid”
“Jan Ingen-Housz (1799) showed that the carbon in plants is taken up from the carbon
dioxide in the air and not from the humus in the soil, as was then generally believed.”
“John Tyndall measured the absorption of infrared radiation by carbon dioxide and water
vapor and showed that the quantities of these substances present in the atmosphere
significantly raise the earth's temperature.”
“By the end of the nineteenth century it was realized that the carbon dioxide content of the
air was probably increasing, because of the large- scale combustion of coal that had begun
during previous decades.”
“Chamberlin and Arrhenius were in believing that atmospheric CO2 was much lower
during glacial times than at present”
Revelle, Roger. "Introduction: The scientific history of carbon dioxide." The Carbon Cycle
and Atmospheric CO: Natural Variations Archean to Present (1985): 1-4.
PRODUCTION
“On the other hand, the production of CO, by kilning of limestone adds 1 to 2 % to the
annual totals. The cumulative increase in carbon in the short term carbon cycle, owing to
man’s industrial and domestic activities up to 1970, is estimated to be 1.12+ 0.14A10’’g
(4.1k0.5x10’7gCO,),or about 18%oftheamountofCO,intheatmo- sphere during the late
nineteenth century. “
“The combustion of fossil fuels by world industry is causing an increase in carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere and in reservoirs which exchange this gas rapidly with the air, including
all surface and some deep waters of the oceans”
Keeling, Charles D. "Industrial production of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels and
limestone." Tellus 25.2 (1973): 174-198.
“CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion, including small contribuions from cement
production and gas flaring, were 8.7% in 2008, an increase of 2.0% on 2007, 29% on
2000 and 41% above emission sin 1990. Emissions increased at a rate of 3.4% year
between 2000 and 2008, compared with 1.0% year in the 1900s”
“CO2 emissions has been dominated by countries that do not have emissions limitations
in the so-called non-Annex B of the Kyoto Protocol, where emissions have more than
doubled in that time”
“emissions from LUC (land-use change) are the second-largest anthropogenic source of
CO2. Deforestation, logging, and intensive cultivation of cropland soils emit CO2”
….”9.9% in 2008 due to LUC including fire emissions associated with deforestation”
Le Quéré, Corinne, et al. "Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide." Nature
Geoscience 2.12 (2009): 831-836.
CO2 IN DAILY LIFE- USES/IN THE ATMOSPHERE
Precursor to chemicals, foods, inert gas, fire extinguisher, solvent, oil recovery, bio
transformation into fuel, refrigerant, coal bed methane recovery….
uses listed for carbon dioxide on Wikipedia site but no academic articles..
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important long-lived trace gas in Earth's atmosphere currently
constituting about 0.04% (400 parts per million) of the atmosphere. Despite its relatively
small overall concentration, CO2 is a potent greenhouse gas and plays a vital role in
regulating Earth's surface temperature through radiative forcing and the greenhouse
effect: CO2 absorbs and emits infrared radiation at wavelengths of 4.26 µm (asymmetric
stretching vibrational mode) and 14.99 µm (bending vibrational mode).[1]
From wikipedia
GREENHOUSE EFFECT/GLOBAL WARMING
“carbon dioxide emissions account for 80% of the contribution to global warming of
current greenhouse gas emissions”
Lashof, Daniel A., and Dilip R. Ahuja. "Relative contributions of greenhouse gas
emissions to global warming." (1990): 529-531.
“Global warming from the increase in greenhouse gases has become a major scientific
and political issue during the past decade. That infrared radiation is trapped by
greenhouse gases and particles in a planetary atmosphere and that the atmospheric
CO2 level has increased by some 25 percent since 1850 because of fossil fuel
combustion and land use (largely deforestation)”
Schneider, Stephen H. "The greenhouse effect: science and policy." Science 243.4892
(1989): 771-781.
atmospheric CO2 concentration has increased to over 390 parts per million and
continues to increase, causing the phenomenon of global warming which is mostly
attributed to human CO2 emissions.
From Wikipedia.. Looked forever for a quote connecting greenhouse effect and global
warming on google scholar
IMPACTS TO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
“almost half of the CO2 produced in the past 200 years by burning fossil fuels and cement
manufacture has been absorbed by the oceans. This has already resulted in a change to
ocean chemistry, reducing surface seawater pH by about 0.1 units, which corresponds to an
increase of about 30% in the concentration of hydrogen ions”
“Our results indicate that atmospheric release of CO2 will produce changes in the ocean
chemistry that could affect marine ecosystems significantly, even under future pathways in
which most of the remaining fossil fuel CO2 is never released. Thus chemical effects of CO2
on the marine environment may be as great a cause for concern as the radiative effects of
CO2 on Earth’s climate”
Caldeira, Ken, and Michael E. Wickett. "Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from
carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean." Journal of Geophysical Research:
Oceans (1978–2012) 110.C9 (2005).
“the influence of ocean acidification (from CO2) on marine organisms…. Could include
decreased reproductive potential, slower growth or increased susceptibility to disease.
These responses could have cascading effects through food webs, with possible
consequences for ecosystem structure and elemental cycling
Raven, John, et al. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The
Royal Society, 2005.
CLIMATE/AGRICULTURAL EFFECTS
“Anthropogenic carbon dioxide will cause irrevocable sea level rise… warming causes the
ocean to expand and sea levels to rise.. loss of land ice also makes contributions to se level
rise”
Solomon, Susan, et al. "Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions."
Proceedings of the national academy of sciences 106.6 (2009): 1704-1709.
“climate change was found to increase the disparities in cereal production between
developed and developing countries. Whereas production in developed world benefited
from climate change, production in the developing nations declines. Adaptation at the
farm-level did little to reduce disparities, with the developing world suffering the losses.
Cereal prices, and thus the population at risk of hunger, increased”
Rosenzweig, Cynthia, and Martin L. Parry. "Potential impact of climate change on world
food supply." Nature 367.6459 (1994): 133-138.
“for the core areas of mid-latitude cereal regions of North American ad Europe, an increase
in average temperature would decrease yields… a 2ºC increase may decrease yields in
those areas by 3 to 17 percent”
Warrick, R. A. "Carbon dioxide, climatic change and agriculture." Geographical journal
(1988): 221-233.
HEALTH EFFECTS
“mean arterial blood pressure rose significantly during the CO2 ….inhalations”
Kety, Seymour S., and Carl F. Schmidt. "The effects of altered arterial tensions of carbon
dioxide and oxygen on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption of normal
young men." Journal of Clinical Investigation 27.4 (1948): 484.
Carbon dioxide toxicity- dimmed sight, reduced hearing, shortness of breath, muscle
tremor, drowsiness, mild narcosis, dizziness, confusion, headache, unconsciousness,
sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure
^all listed in Wikipedia and articles listed on your topic sheet but can not find google
scholar articles supporting this
By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke,
heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including
asthma.
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/ - article give on Dr. Hammer’s
topics to write about
REGULATIONS
“US remains the only industrialized country without a policy on carbon dioxide”
Porter, Michael. "America's green strategy." Business and the Environment: A Reader 33
(1996).
"WHO Air Quality Guidelines" estimate that reducing annual average particulate matter
(PM10) concentrations from levels of 70 μg/m3, common in many developing cities, to the
WHO guideline level of 20 μg/m3, could reduce air pollution-related deaths by around
15%.
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/ - article given on Dr. Hammer’s
topics to write about