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Transcript
Evolution Quiz Study Guide
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Adaptation – a change that enables an organism to better survive
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Branching tree - a diagram that shows how different groups of organisms are related
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Cast – a fossil made of hardened minerals in the shape of the original organism/one of its parts
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Charles Darwin – published a book entitled On the Origin of Species; learned about the living
things he saw on his voyage to the Galapagos Islands
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Competition – results in limited food and other resources; occurs for food, shelter, and mates
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Embryology – study of the development of organisms
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Evolution – change in hereditary features over time; considered a scientific theory
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Fossils – evidence of an organism; formed when buried in sediment
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Fossil record - composed of the millions of fossils scientists have found
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Genes – controls physical traits
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Gradualism - one of the main ways through which new species form
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Half-life – the time it the time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample to decay
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Homologous – structures with similar form and function
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Natural selection – survival of the fittest
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Offspring – produced to continue a species; more are produced than can survive
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Radioactive dating – technique that allows scientists to determine the actual age of a fossil;
depends on the decay of the radioactive elements
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Species – group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring
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Theory – a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
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Variation – a difference among individuals in a species
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Vestigial organ – a structure that no longer serves a function
Factors that can affect natural selection include:
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Overproduction
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Variation
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Competition
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Selection
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Environmental change
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Genes