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Transcript
CHARACTERISTICS OF
LIVING THINGS
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF
ALL LIVING THINGS?
6 CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANISMS
1. Cellular organization
• Unicellular – single celled such as
a bacteria
• All body functions take place within
one cell
• Multicellular – composed of
many cells
• Cells can be specialized for
different functions (such as muscle
cells for movement, blood cells to
deliver O2)
2. Similar Chemistry
•
•
•
•
•
•
Nucleic Acid (DNA)
Water (most abundant)
Carbohydrates (energy source)
Protein (structure & communication)
Lipids (energy & structure)
ATP (energy cells can use)
3. Use Energy
• Organisms get energy from taking in &
breaking down materials
• Metabolism – the combination of chemical
reactions by which an organism builds up or
breaks down materials
• Organisms use energy to grow, replace cells,
repair injury
4. Response to Surroundings
• Stimulus – a change that causes an
• organism to react
• Ex. Light, sound, etc.
• Response – an action or change in
• behavior
• Ex. A plant growing toward a light source
5. Grow & Develop
• Growth = getting larger
• Development = process of change that occurs during
an organism’s life (ex. tadpole turning into a frog)
6. Reproduction
• Production of offspring that are similar to the parent(s)
• Asexual – one parent produces offspring identical to
the parent
• Sexual – two parents produce offspring with a
combination of the parents genetic information
WHERE DO LIVING THINGS COME FROM?
• Living things only arise from other living things
through reproduction.
• 400 years ago people believed in spontaneous generation,
the mistaken idea that living things could arise from
nonliving sources.
• 2 scientists helped to disprove the idea of spontaneous
generation:
1. Redi designed an experiment using decaying meat and
flies.
2. Pasteur designed an experiment using broth and
bacteria.