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Changes Over Time
Chapter 5
A group of similar
organisms that can
mate with each other
and produce fertile
offspring are called a
A trait that helps an
organism survive and
reproduce is called a(n)
The change of a
species over time is
called __________.
A well tested concept
that explains a wide
range of observations is
called a(n)
scientific theory
The process by which
individuals that are better
adapted to their
environment are more likely
to survive and reproduce
than other members of the
same species is called
Natural selection
The theory that was
proposed by Jean Baptiste
Lamarck in the early
1800’s that stated that
traits developed during
the lifetime of an
organism could be passed
on to its offspring is
called _________.
The Theory of
One way that a new
species can evolve is when
a land form separates a
group of individuals from
the rest of its species
long enough to evolve
different traits. This
process is called
geographic isolation
Any difference
between individuals of
the same species is
called a(n) _________.
The geographic isolation
that occurred on a world
wide scale hundreds of
millions of years ago and
led to the evolution of
unique organisms like
those found on the
continent of Australia is
called __________.
continental drift
The preserved remains
or traces of an
organism that lived in
the past is called a(n)
Most fossils form in
____________ rock.
sedimentary rock
Fossils that form when
remains are buried in
sediment and are
changed to rock when
minerals soak into the
remains are called
petrified fossils
Using the Law of
Superposition scientists
determine whether one fossil
is older than another by
using _____________.
relative dating
The process of
accurately dating a
fossil by determining
the ratio of a
radioactive element to
its more stable form is
called ______.
absolute dating
The millions of fossils
that scientists have
collected that give
important information
about the Earth’s past
are called the
fossil record
The calendar of Earth’s
history is called the
Geologic Time
The largest span of
time in the Geologic
Time Scale is called
Precambrian Time
Humans evolved in what
era of the Geologic Time
Cenozoic Era
What is the age of the
4.6 billion years
A fossil made of
hardened minerals in the
shape of the original
organism or one of its
parts is called a(n)
A diagram that shows
how different groups
of organisms are
related is called a(n)
branching tree
The __________ of a
radioactive element is
the amount of time it
takes for half of the
atoms in a sample to
The author of Origin of
Species and the theory
of natural selection is
Charles Darwin
A species is
_________ if no
members of that
species are still
When a hard part of
an organism buried in
sediment dissolves and
leaves an empty space,
the result is called a