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Transcript
Step Up To:
Discovering Psychology
by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
From: Hockenbury & Hockenbury (2007)
Discovering Psychology 4e
Worth Publishers
Chapter 11: Social Psychology
You’ve got an attitude.
Attribution
Follow the Crowd
First Impressions
Helping Others
First Impressions
500
400
300
200
100
Attribution
500
400
300
200
100
You’ve got attitude.
500
400
300
200
100
Follow the Crowd
500
400
300
200
100
Helping Others
500
400
300
200
100
1. ___ refer(s) to the mental
processes people use to make sense
out of their social environment.
•
•
•
•
A) Social psychology
B) Social cognition
C) Social influence
D) Social constructs
2. Mental processes we use to form
judgments and draw conclusions about the
characteristics and motives of other people
are called:
•
•
•
•
A) social influence.
B) social cognition.
C) social psychology.
D) person perception.
3.
No one suspected that the man in the
clown suit visiting sick children in the
hospital to cheer them up would be John Gacy.
He just wasn’t that “type” of person. This
illustrates:
•
•
•
•
A) implicit personality theories.
B) social cognition.
C) trait theory of personality.
D) expectation evaluation.
4.
•
•
•
•
Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She
feels uncomfortable when the bus stops
and only one person gets on and sits
next to her. Her discomfort is, in part,
caused by:
A) social influence.
B) person perception.
C) social norms.
D) implicit personality theory.
5.
•
•
•
•
David was directed to an office with a
man and a woman inside. He saw the
name “Dr. Smith” on the door, and
approached the man. He was engaged in
the process of:
A) implicit personality theory.
B) person perception.
C) social categorization.
D) social norms.
6. While watching a homeless person beg
on the street corner, George thinks, “He must
be lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t
have to beg.” George is most likely
demonstrating:
• A) good judgment.
• B) the fundamental attribution
error.
• C) personal bias.
• D) stereotyping.
7.
Rape victims are sometimes blamed for
wearing clothes that are too revealing
and thus “getting what she deserved.”
This false conclusion is based on:
• A) the just-world hypothesis.
• B) the fundamental attribution
error.
• C) social categorization.
• D) the social exchange theory.
8. The tendency to give ourselves
credit when we succeed and to
blame our failures on external
circumstances is called:
•
•
•
•
A) actor-observer discrepancy.
B) personal perception.
C) fundamental attribution error.
D) self-serving bias.
9. When you attribute your own
behavior to the situation and others’
behavior to the fact that “it’s just the way
they are,” you are demonstrating:
•
•
•
•
A) blaming the victim.
B) self-serving bias.
C) fundamental attribution error.
D) actor-observer discrepancy.
10. The tendency to blame ourselves
for failures while attributing our
successes to external causes is
called a(n):
•
•
•
•
A) self-serving bias.
B) self-effacing bias.
C) actor-observer discrepancy.
D) fundamental attributional error.
11. When you behave in a way that
is in conflict with your attitude, you
experience:
•
•
•
•
A) cognitive dissonance.
B) thought confusion.
C) attitude adjustment.
D) behavior reassessment.
12. Prejudice is defined as:
• A) taking negative action toward people
who belong to a different social group.
• B) speaking badly about people who
belong to a different social group.
• C) a negative attitude toward people who
belong to a specific social group.
• D) all of the above.
13. Barb believes that all teenagers are
immature, aggressive, selfish, and
irresponsible. Her attitudes toward
teenagers represent her:
•
•
•
•
A) prejudice.
B) out-group classification.
C) stereotype.
D) cognitive dissonance.
14. Mr. Jamison believes it is justifiable to
send troops to invade another country
because his country is morally superior to
the other. His beliefs demonstrate:
•
•
•
•
A) ethnocentrism.
B) prejudice.
C) stereotype.
D) cognitive dissonance.
15. This study demonstrated that
cooperation among group members can
lessen prejudice.
•
•
•
•
A) Robbers Cave Experiment
B) Jigsaw Classroom
C) In-group, Out-group study
D) Zimbardo’s Cognitive
Dissonance study
16. In Solomon Asch’s experiment about
how our perceptions may be influenced by
others:
• A) more than a third of the people changed
their opinions to agree with others.
• B) most people changed their opinions to
agree with others.
• C) most everyone ignored what others
said.
• D) more than two thirds of the people
denied what they saw with their own
eyes and instead chose to agree with
the group.
17. For teens, it is especially important
to dress and act like their peers in
order to be accepted by the group. This
pressure to conform is called:
• A) informational social influence.
• B) ethnocentrism.
• C) out-group homogeneity
effect.
• D) normative social influence.
18. The results of Milgram’s experiment
found that:
• A) the subjects who continued knew
it wasn’t real.
• B) most subjects discontinued when
shock levels became extreme.
• C) most subjects continued to
deliver the highest level of shock.
• D) subjects had to be threatened to
deliver dangerous levels of shock.
19. Further experiments by Milgram helped
to identify factors influencing the outcome of
destructive obedience. These factors
include all of the following, except:
• A) volunteering to participate.
• B) being told the learners were not really
being harmed.
• C) the repetitive escalation of the
task.
• D) the situation, or context, in which
the obedience occurred.
20. Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford
Prison Experiment in 1971. His results could
have predicted problems of prisoner abuse
at Abu Ghraib, in that:
• A) people will follow the direct orders of a
superior when in the military.
• B) implied social norms can be just as
powerful as explicit orders.
• C) we will easily scapegoat those
different from ourselves.
• D) people can not resist pressure to
perform evil action.
21. According to studies done on helping
behavior, if you want to collect for a charity,
the person most likely to give would be:
• A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he
did a good job.
• B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in
her pocket.
• C) David, who just lost a tennis
match.
• D) Sarah, who has never given
before.
22. Kitty Genovese was killed while
others watched and listened. They
knew others were watching, too. Their
behavior is explained by the:
•
•
•
•
A) apathy.
B) prosocial behavior.
C) altruism.
D) bystander effect.
23. Regarding size of the city/town and its
relationship to helping behavior towards a
stranger:
• A) people are less likely to help the
larger the city is.
• B) people are more likely to help the
smaller the town is.
• C) people are less likely to help in a
large city or very small town.
• D) people are more likely to help in
a large city.
24. According to the bystander effect, if
you needed help you would be more likely to
get it if:
• A) many people were present.
• B) few people were present.
• C) someone else was also
helping.
• D) no one knew you.
25. Prosocial behavior with no expectation
of personal reward or benefit is called:
•
•
•
•
A) bystander intervention.
B) altruism.
C) diffusion of responsibility.
D) cost-benefit analysis.
Stop here, or continue as a review
1. ___ refer(s) to the mental processes
people use to make sense out of their
social environment.
•
•
•
•
A) Social psychology
B) Social cognition
C) Social influence
D) Social constructs
438
2. Mental processes we use to form
judgments and draw conclusions about the
characteristics and motives of other people
are called:
•
•
•
•
A) social influence.
B) social cognition.
C) social psychology.
D) person perception.
438
3.
No one suspected that the man in the
clown suit visiting sick children in the
hospital to cheer them up would be John Gacy.
He just wasn’t that “type” of person. This
illustrates:
•
•
•
•
A) implicit personality theories.
B) social cognition.
C) trait theory of personality.
D) expectation evaluation.
440
4.
•
•
•
•
Kristi is sitting alone on the bus. She
feels uncomfortable when the bus stops
and only one person gets on and sits
next to her. Her discomfort is, in part,
caused by:
A) social influence.
B) person perception.
C) social norms.
D) implicit personality theory.
439
5.
•
•
•
•
David was directed to an office with a
man and a woman inside. He saw the
name “Dr. Smith” on the door, and
approached the man. He was engaged in
the process of:
A) implicit personality theory.
B) person perception.
C) social categorization.
D) social norms.
440
6. While watching a homeless person beg
on the street corner, George thinks, “He must
be lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t
have to beg.” George is most likely
demonstrating:
• A) good judgment.
• B) the fundamental attribution
error.
• C) personal bias.
• D) stereotyping.
443
7.
Rape victims are sometimes blamed for
wearing clothes that are too revealing
and thus “getting what she deserved.”
This false conclusion is based on:
• A) the just-world hypothesis.
• B) the fundamental attribution
error.
• C) social categorization.
• D) the social exchange theory.
443
8. Tending to give ourselves credit
when we succeed and to blame our
failures on external circumstances
is called:
•
•
•
•
A) actor-observer discrepancy.
B) personal perception.
C) fundamental attribution error.
D) self-serving bias.
445
9. When you attribute your own
behavior to the situation and others’
behavior to the fact that “it’s just the way
they are,” you are demonstrating:
•
•
•
•
A) blaming the victim.
B) self-serving bias.
C) fundamental attribution error.
D) actor-observer discrepancy.
444
10. The tendency to blame ourselves
for failures while attributing our
successes to external causes is
called a(n):
•
•
•
•
A) self-serving bias.
B) self-effacing bias.
C) actor-observer discrepancy.
D) fundamental attributional error.
446
11. When you behave in a way that
is in conflict with your attitude, you
experience:
•
•
•
•
A) cognitive dissonance.
B) thought confusion.
C) attitude adjustment.
D) behavior reassessment.
448
12. Prejudice is defined as:
• A) taking negative action toward people
who belong to a different social group.
• B) speaking badly about people who
belong to a different social group.
• C) a negative attitude toward people who
belong to a specific social group.
• D) all of the above.
450
13. Barb believes that all teenagers are
immature, aggressive, selfish, and
irresponsible. Her attitudes toward
teenagers represent her:
•
•
•
•
A) prejudice.
B) out-group classification.
C) stereotype.
D) cognitive dissonance.
450
14. Mr. Jamison believes it is justifiable to
send troops to invade another country
because his country is morally superior to
the other. His beliefs demonstrate:
•
•
•
•
A) ethnocentrism.
B) prejudice.
C) stereotype.
D) cognitive dissonance.
452
15. This study demonstrated that
cooperation among group members can
lessen prejudice.
•
•
•
•
A) Robbers Cave Experiment
B) Jigsaw Classroom
C) In-group, Out-group study
D) Zimbardo’s Cognitive Dissonance
study
454
16. In Solomon Asch’s experiment about
how our perceptions may be influenced by
others:
• A) more than a third of the people changed
their opinions to agree with others.
• B) most people changed their opinions to
agree with others.
• C) most everyone ignored what others
said.
• D) more than two thirds of the people
denied what they saw with their own
eyes and instead chose to agree with
the group.
455
17. For teens, it is especially
important to dress and act like their
peers in order to be accepted by the
group. This pressure to conform is
called:
•
•
•
•
A) informational social influence.
B) ethnocentrism.
C) out-group homogeneity effect.
D) normative social influence.
456
18. The results of Milgram’s experiment
found that:
• A) the subjects who continued knew
it wasn’t real.
• B) most subjects discontinued when
shock levels became extreme.
• C) most subjects continued to
deliver the highest level of shock.
• D) subjects had to be threatened to
deliver dangerous levels of shock.
459
19. Further experiments by Milgram helped
to identify factors influencing the outcome of
destructive obedience. These factors
include all of the following, except:
• A) volunteering to participate.
• B) being told the learners were not really
being harmed.
• C) the repetitive escalation of the
task.
• D) the situation, or context, in which
the obedience occurred.
460
20. Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford
Prison Experiment in 1971. His results could
have predicted problems of prisoner abuse
at Abu Ghraib, in that:
• A) people will follow the direct orders of a
superior when in the military.
• B) implied social norms can be just as
powerful as explicit orders.
• C) we will easily scapegoat those
different from ourselves.
• D) people can not resist pressure to
perform evil action.
463
21. According to studies done on helping
behavior, if you want to collect for a charity,
the person most likely to give would be:
• A) Joe, who was just told by his boss he
did a good job.
• B) Mary, who has one hundred dollars in
her pocket.
• C) David, who just lost a tennis
match.
• D) Sarah, who has never given
before.
467
22. Kitty Genovese was killed while
others watched and listened. They
knew others were watching, too. Their
behavior is explained by:
•
•
•
•
A) apathy.
B) prosocial behavior.
C) altruism.
D) the bystander effect.
467
23. Regarding size of the city/town and its
relationship to helping behavior towards a
stranger:
• A) people are less likely to help the
larger the city is.
• B) people are more likely to help the
smaller the town is.
• C) people are less likely to help in a
large city or very small town.
• D) people are more likely to help in
a large city.
468
24. According to the bystander effect, if
you needed help you would be more likely to
get it if:
•
•
•
•
A) many people were present.
B) few people were present.
C) someone else was also helping.
D) no one knew you.
468
25. Prosocial behavior with no expectation
of personal reward or benefit is called:
•
•
•
•
A) bystander intervention.
B) altruism.
C) diffusion of responsibility.
D) cost-benefit analysis.
466
Acknowledgments
• Step Up Created by:
John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
• Based on Discovering
Psychology 4e by
Hockenbury & Hockenbury
• Worth Publishers, 2007
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
B
D
A
C
C
B
A
D
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
D
B
A
C
C
A
B
A
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
D
C
B
B
A
D
C
B
25. B