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Unit 2 Cells Study Guide How do bacterial cells differ from animal cells? Cells that make proteins would have a large number of ________? What protein makes up the cytoskeleton & gives a cell its shape? How do phospholipids in the cell membrane move? If a body cell had 24 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would be in the gamete? If chromosomes have the same genes in the same location & the same banding pattern, they are said to be ___? What chemical in animal cell membranes maintains their fluid nature? Facilitated diffusion & active transport both require what molecules in cell membranes? Name the 3 stages of cell signaling. How does a sexual life cycle increase genetic variation? What organelle converts light energy into chemical energy? What will happens to the chromosomes in a cell that passes the restriction checkpoint? What type of scope is needed to study the internal structure of a cell? Does the cytoskeleton limit cell size? Describe the signal-transduction pathway in animals. What type of cells do not reproduce more cells by mitosis & cytokinesis? Is diffusion active or passive transport? How can you determine if a cell is in an isotonic solution? What organelle makes lipids? What is the function of these cell structures --- mitochondrion, chloroplast, ribosome, lysosome, cell wall, & chromosomes? How does CO2 move into a cell? Name the parts of the cytoskeleton. What cell organelles have two membranes? What is active transport? How does potassium move into & out of a cell? How does one rotting piece of fruit affect the ripening of others? Name all structures in a cell responsible for movement. In what organisms is cell signaling less important? If a cell has 92 chromosomes at the start of mitosis, how many will be in the daughter cells? Describe paracrine signaling. When do tetrads from in a cell? What is the function of tyrosine-kinase receptors? At what point are chromatids attached to each other? What is the function of glycolipids & glycoproteins in animal cell membranes? How does telophase of mitosis differ in plant & animal cells? When the signal molecule changes the protein receptor, what process begins? What is membrane potential? What effect would calcium deficiency have on a plant? Besides the nucleus, where else can DNA be found in a cell? Do plant cells have mitochondria? Why or why not? Which proteins in the cell membrane function in active transport? Why would bacterial cells not be capable of phagocytosis? Why are eukaryotic cells larger than prokaryotic cells? What is the purpose of cell fractionation? Through what type of junctions do ions travel between cells? How can you determine if a karyotype is from a male or female? How do genetic differences in clones occur? If the spindle can not form, at what stage will mitosis no longer proceed? What will be true of cells that undergo mitosis but not cytokinesis? What cellular structure helps form the cleavage furrow in animal cells? How do receptor proteins in a membrane act like enzymes? What occurs during prophase of mitosis? By what process do large solids move into a cell? Does the movement of oxygen & carbon dioxide across cell membranes require energy? Describe the interior of chloroplasts & mitochondria. How is synaptic signaling different than hormone signaling? What is a karyotype? How do daughter & parent cells compare with each other? What form of energy is the most random? What changes occur in H, S, and G when a protein forms from amino acids? How does an enzyme catalyze a reaction? Explain the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Is a chemical reaction with a positive G endergonic or exergonic? List the properties of enzymes. Why is ATP an important metabolic molecule? Describe the change in free energy at equilibrium. Increasing substrate concentration has what effect on competitive inhibition? What is the first law of thermodynamics? When energy is transformed, what is the effect on entropy in the system? If temperature is kept uniform in a system, free energy will be what? If products have less free energy than reactants, is the reaction endergonic or exergonic? What is catabolism? How is energy obtained from ATP to energize cellular processes? If the concentration of reactants is decreased, what effect will this have on the rate of the reaction/ What type of pathways are coupled with anabolic pathways to supply ATP to cells? Explain enzyme cooperativity & allosteric sites. Explain the induced fit explanation for enzymes & substrates. What is free energy? Describe CO2 fixation & the Calvin cycle in CAM plants. Photorespiration decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis because it removes what from the Calvin cycle? What is synthesize across thylakoid membranes? Why can C4 plants better at photosynthesis without photorespiration? What pigments can absorb light energy? Proton gradient are responsible for producing what energy molecules? Give 2 examples of products of the Calvin cycle that are used in the light reactions? What 2 main energy molecules are products of the light reactions? Is glucose required for the Calvin cycle? Explain. In what reactions is glyceraldehyde phosphate produced? If a pigment appears red to your eyes, what color of light is not being absorbed? During what process is CO2 incorporated into PGA? The chemiosomotic process in chloroplasts occurs when what type of gradient is established? Name the most abundant protein (enzyme) in the world. In what tissue does carbon fixation occur in C4 plants before being transferred to bundle-sheath cells? Photosystem II uses which chlorophyll a molecule? What gas is required and which gas is not required for photosynthesis to occur? What is the primary energy source for plants? for animals? What enzyme catalyzes phosphorylation? Where in the chloroplast does the Calvin cycle occur? What type of plants fix CO2 into organic acids during the day? When does the Calvin cycle in most plants occur? Which color of light is least effective in driving photosynthesis? Cyclic electron flow in chloroplasts produces what energy molecule? Where does the ETS in plants occur? In terms of energy how are photosynthesis & cellular respiration related? In what 2 membranes in plant cells is ATP synthetase found? Is oxygen released in the light or dark reactions of photosynthesis? Does photophosphorylation occur in Photosystem II? In which photosystem is water split? Which process does not give a net gain in ATP ---glycolysis, aerobic respiration, or fermentation? Which would release more energy from glucose --- combustion or cellular respiration? Is ATP a product of lactate fermentation? If a metabolic poison interferes with glycolysis, what must its structure be most like? Are water and CO2 end products of glycolysis? Which has more energy ---NAD or NADH? Oxidative phosphorylation occurs across ___________in a cell. which has more energy --- glucose at the start of glycolysis or the 2 pyruvate molecules at the end of glycolysis? Molecular oxygen supplies the oxygen atoms during oxidative phosphorylation to form what? What is chemiosmosis? Lactate is a byproduct of fermentation in what type of animal cells? What type of enzyme in cellular respiration helps remove electrons from organic molecules? The ETS helps a cell generate what energy molecule? Will glycolysis occur if oxygen is present? Is oxygen needed for the process? The difference in H+ concentration of either side of the mitochondrial membrane drives the synthesis of what molecule? Where in a cell will the enzymes needed for glycolysis be found? Citric acid has 6 carbons. In the Krebs cycle 2 CO2 molecules are given off before succinic acid is formed. How many carbons will succinic a During substrate-phosphorylation, how many ATP molecules are made each cycle? Isocritic acid has 6 carbons while ketoglutaric acid in the Krebs cycle only has 5 carbons. What happened to the "missing" carbon? What gas accepts electrons at the end of the ETS? Substrate-level phosphorylation during fermentation generates what molecule? Acetyl CoA is made in muscle cells only under what conditions? The end products of glycolysis are ATP, NADH, and what carbon molecule? What 2 electron acceptor molecules in the Krebs cycle convert their energy to ATP in the ETS? In chemiosmotic phosphorylation what is the direct energy source that drives the conversion of ADP + free P into ATP? The glycolysis of glucose by a yeast cell nets how many ATP's? What intermediary metabolite of pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle? How is a proton gradient established in the mitochondria? How many O2 molecules are produced from the complete oxidation of glucose? What type of animal tissue has a high ATP requirement?