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Advanced Placement Psychology Syllabus
Course Overview:
The school runs on a trimester schedule with each trimester consisting of 60 days,
including an end-of –trimester exam that constitutes 10% of the grade. Third trimester,
the students are exempt from the exam because they are require to take the AP
examination. Students may withdraw after Trimester I and their transcripts will reflect
that they only completed the introductory portion of the course. The second part of the
course is two trimesters and successful completion of it, in its entirely, is required for a
student to earn the four credits. The syllabus is listed by chapter numbers that are not
sequential because the topics are approached in an order that varies from the text’s
sequence. Chapters are occasionally combined into one unit of complementary themes –
specifically Chapter 6 & 7 and Chapters 8, 10 & 13. A personal portfolio is assigned in
January and required of all students, but the juniors are given additional criteria that will
carry them through the end of the school year.
***Excepting the Portfolio unit, all learning objectives at the end of each unit are
quoted directly from the Hockenbury and Hockenbury’s Instructor’s Resources and
reflect accurately the course focus.***
Course Description: Introduction to Advance Placement Psychology Honors (1
trimester/2 credits
Introduction to Advanced Placement Psychology is a honors level social studies elective
that can be taken by juniors or seniors in partial fulfillment of the history/social studies
graduation requirement. There are no prerequisites. The class meets for 60 minutes for
60 days and all students are required, in addition to each end-of-chapter test, to take an
end-of-trimester final that constitutes 10% of their grade. The course begins with an
exploration of the history, methodology, and major perspectives of psychology, with a
focus upon the scientific method, ethical guidelines, and the application of statistics to
interpret data and give meaning to research. This is followed by social psychology which
is taught in the context of the research methodologies. Psychobiology, with an emphasis
the brain, nervous and endocrine systems, and the impact of sensations and perceptions is
the next focus of the course. The theories that explain states of consciousness are then
examined. Successful completion of the course is required prior to enrollment in
Advanced Placement Psychology.
Course Description: Advanced Placement Psychology Honors (2 trimesters/4
Advanced Placement Psychology, a honors level social studies elective, is offered to
juniors or seniors in partial fulfillment of the history/social studies graduation
requirement. Successful completion of Introduction to Advanced Placement Psychology
is a prerequisite for Advance Placement Psychology. The class meets for 60 minutes for
120 days. There are regular end-of-chapter tests as well as an end-of-trimester exam after
the first 60 days that constitutes 10% of the trimester average. All students are required,
in May, to take the Advanced Placement examination that is administered by the College
Board in lieu of an end-of-trimester exam. The course builds upon the basic principles
that have been introduced and developed in Introduction to Advanced Placement
Psychology, while introducing the major theories of learning, thinking, language and
intelligence. Key psychologists’ theories of personality development, and emotions and
motivations are explored. The course culminates with the exploration of abnormal
behavior, its causes, treatments and impact upon society. Throughout the course, a
reinforcement of the major principles of psychobiology, ethics, research methodology,
sensations and perception, and social psychology are made. A significant period of
review that includes taking practice examinations and writing essays in the AP style is
reviewed and practiced during the weeks preceding the May examination. A portfolio
that begins in January is compiled by all students, but the juniors are required to meet
additional criteria in the weeks following the senior exit from school.
Classwork: Classwork is consistent with the high school’s student expectations..
Classroom work will include:
a.) teacher lecture with student taking notes.
b.) discussion of the topics upon which the lectures have been based.
c.) in-class, small group activities that are related to the subjects under
study at the time.
d.) related worksheets to reinforce lectures and discussions.
e.) appropriate audio-visual and art-based presentations with follow-up
f.) Internet based research on specific topics.
Homework: Homework is assigned nightly in the form of reading assignments,
note taking, short answers and various worksheets which will be reviewed at the
beginning of each class. Additional assignments and activities will be made as
required. Assignments will be passed in at the beginning of class on the due date
and each assignment will be graded and recorded. Non-written assignments are
equally as important and will be subject to teacher evaluation on the due date,
whether in a written or oral manner. All homework, as well as tests, quizzes, or
other classroom assignments that are missed due to absence, will be made up in
accordance with the school policy.
Grading: Term grades will be based on homework, quizzes, tests, other written
and group assignments, and class work/participation. The weights given to these
individual parts will vary from term to term based on whether projects are given
during a particular marking period. To remain consistent with the A.P. exam, tests
will consist of multiple choice questions (67%) and essays (33%). All tests will be
cumulative, with emphasis upon the chapter begin studied at that time. The AP
exanimation is given in May and the remainder of the course will include selected
topics, activities, and readings to continue to prepare the students for college, as
well as the portfolio project. Consistent with student expectations, there is no
equitable substitute for class work that is missed due to absence because here is no
substitute for the interactions and discussions that take place within the classroom
setting. Students are expected to attend regularly and schedule optional
appointments during seminar block,
Extra Help/Makeup: Extra help as well as makeup will be available on the stated
days and, at the student's request, on any other afternoon that is mutually
agreeable. Should an emergency or holiday fall on either day, an alternate day will
be announced. Students will have two full school days, as is explained in their
handbook, to complete any missed work. Specific written assignments may be
given to a student who has been absent to replace classroom activities that were
missed, but there is nothing that can totally equate with presence in the classroom.
Additional Expectations: As is explained in the Student Handbook, progress
reports are issued midway through each trimester. Parents are asked to sign and
return the reports and to contact the teacher at the school if they have any questions
or wish further information. In addition to the above, all students will be expected
a.) bring the covered textbook to class daily.
b.) maintain a three ring binder to record all information given during the
class and to keep a careful collection of homework assignments, tests, quizzes, &
handouts in their notebook.
c.) create daily notes based upon the day’s key topics.
d.) prepare any assigned material prior to the due date and maintain
appropriate student behavior as is clearly outlined in the student handbook.
f.) when absent from class, ask the teacher for all any make up assignments.
Major Objectives are aligned with the College Board Acorn Guidebook, and the
National Standards for the Teaching of Psychology, as established by the American
Psychological Association. When students have completed this course they should:
Be familiar with the history of psychology as a science.
Understand the different theoretical approaches that underlie psychology.
Appreciate the contemporary research methods used by psychologists.
Respect the ethical guidelines established for psychological research.
Be aware of validity and reliability and why the establishment of norms is important.
Discuss the interplay between heredity and environment on personality and
7. Understand the relationship between biology and behavior.
8. Discover the relationship between sensation and perception
9. Understand the complex interaction between the brain and the body, especially upon
10. Understand the complexity of the various states of consciousness and how difficult
they are to define.
11. Be aware of the effects of various drugs such as narcotics, depressants, stimulants,
and hallucinogens upon consciousness.
12. Be aware of the basic learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.
13. Understand the basic phenomenon of learning.
14. Appreciate the multi-facetted nature of human beings and the various means of
assessing those differences.
15. Confront the moral issues that arise in connection with the use of tests.
16. Be cognizant of the various kinds of knowledge and types of processing
17. Be aware of the relationship between language and thought.
18. Be sensitive to the forces that influence the strength and direction of behavior.
19. Consider the major theories about lifespan development.
20. Appreciate the major theories and approaches to personality.
21. Be familiar with the important theories that conceptualize motives and explain
22. Understand that development is a lifelong process with varied theories about stage of
23. Be familiar with research techniques used to gather data on the developmental
24. Appreciate the issues surrounding the developmental process (nature/nurture,
continuity/discontinuity, stability/instability, critical periods)
25. Understand what is meant by personality and personality constructs
26. Be familiar with the assessment tools used in personality and the significant the
theories of personality.
27. Appreciate the importance of social judgment, attitudes, and social and cultural
28. Be cognizant of the various group processes and social influences upon group
29. Understand the characteristics and origins of abnormal behavior as well as the major
categories of abnormal behavior.
30. Explain the methods used in exploring abnormal behavior.
31. Be familiar with prominent methods used to treat people with disorders, and the
types of practitioners who implement treatment
32. Perceive the impact of mental disorders and the legal and ethical challenges involved
in delivery of treatment.
33. Define personality and explain the role of personality constructs as a framework for
organizing behavioral phenomena.
34. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the psychoanalytic, cognitivebehavioral, humanistic, and trait approaches.
35. Describe tests used in personality assessment.
36. Describe physical, social, and cognitive changes from the prenatal period throughout
the lifespan, and apply lifespan principles to personal experience.
37. Outline the stages of a developmental theory by theorists such as Piaget, Erikson,
Kohlberg, Gilligan, Cross, Helms, and so on.
38. Recognize how biological and environmental factors linked to societal conceptions of
gender shape the experiences of males and females.
39. Explore developmental theories as they relate to cultural bias.
40. Describe how attributions affect our explanations of behavior, and identify sources of
attitude formation.
41. Identify basic social and cultural categories, and discuss how they affect behavior.
42. Explore the nature of bias and discrimination, and describe circumstances under
which conformity and obedience are likely to occur.
43. Describe the significant characteristics of the major mental illness according to DSM
IV - TR.
44. Describe characteristics of effective treatment and prevention, and describe
availability and appropriateness of various modes of treatment for people suffering
with mental illnesses.
45. Consider the ethical issues involved with the treatment of the mentally ill.
Success in Advanced Placement Psychology will be measured by the following
performance standards:
1. Once introduced, students can integrate research methodology, psychobiology, and
ethical standards into all free response writing.
2. Students can analyze general problems in psychology, whether in a written or oral
format, or in cooperative exercises, from the perspective of all five domains, as well
as from different theoretical frameworks.
3. Students can create, analyze, or critique research designs to explore psychological
4. Students can answer correctly multiple-choice questions that demand not only the
recall of specific concepts, but also, the ability to make comparisons and/or analogies,
and draw conclusions.
5. Students are able to participate in and/or present demonstrations that show
understanding of particular psychological principles.
6. Students can express and defend opinions in classroom discussions that are founded
in sound psychological theory.
7. Students will solve problems that are presented in the classroom using psychological
principles that have real world applications.
8. Student will be able to apply the ethical guidelines established by the APA inall of the
above situations.
9. Students can successful reading and comprehending the college level textbook, as
indicated by correctly completing teacher generated and workbook exercises
throughout the course.
10. Students are able to write free response essays that address the rubric style of the AP
11. Students will receive a grade of C or better in the course.
12. Students will achieve a grade of 3 or higher on the May examination given by the
College Board.
Materials and Resources:
The core text and the Instructor’s Resources by Wayne Hall and Beverly Drinnin were
used as the major source for the course description, learning objectives, and chapter
Hockenbury, Don H. and Sandra E. Psychology (3rd edition). New York: Worth
Publishers, 2003.
The standards for teaching psychology have been established as a guide for teachers by
the APA. Included are outlines of major domains and important learning objectives.
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula. Washington, D.C.: The
American Psychological Association, August 2005.
This text and the accompanying Instructors Resources by Martin Bolt) was a key
supplementary source for activities and information.
Meyers, John. Psychology (5th edition). New York: Worth Publishers, 1998.
The APA has developed a series of books, which present numerous experiments and
activities to engage students in an active learning process.
Activities Handbooks for Teachers of Psychology (vol. 1). Washington, D.C.: American
Psychological Association, 1981.
Activities Handbooks for Teachers of Psychology (vol. 2). Washington, D.C.: American
Psychological Association, 1987.
Activities Handbooks for Teachers of Psychology (vol. 3). Washington, D.C.: American
Psychological Association, 1990.
Activities Handbooks for Teachers of Psychology (vol. 4). Washington, D.C.: American
Psychological Association, 1997.
Abnormal behavior is scientifically defined by the APA. The following texts were used as
major resources in the teaching process.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (4th ed., Text Revision).
Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1994.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Casebook, vol. 4. Washington,
D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Maxmen, Jerrold S., M.D., and Nicholas G. Ward. Essentials of Psychopathology and Its
Treatment, 2nd edition. New York: W.W, Norton & Company, Inc., 1995.
Several supplementary activity books were also used as sources of activities and
Boteler, Mary and Donna J. Kotting. Psychology. USA: The Center for Learning, 1999.
Eder, James. Lessons in Psychology: Maine: J. Weston Walch Publishers, 1985.
Holonen, Jane. The Critical Thinking Companion for Introductory Psychology. Worth
Publishers, 1995.
Resources from the following workshops, institutes and the APA.
APA/TOPPS Teaching Units
APA/APF Clarke University Workshop for Psychology Teachers
Released AP Psychology Examinations, 1994, 1999 and 2004.
Resources from the St. Johnsbury, Vermont AP Institute, Summers of 1999, 2000, and
Course Overview: Scope and Sequence
Trimester I
History & Approaches (Chapter 1/Appendix B) ……….……….…..7 Days
Research Methodology (Chapter 1/Appendix A)……………………12 Days
Social Psychology (Chapter 12)…………………………………...…12 Days
Biopsychology (Chapter 2)………………………………….…….….12 Days
Sensation & Perception (Chapter 3)…………………………….……12 Days
Dreams & Altered States of Consciousness (Chapter 4)……………..5 Days
60 Days
Trimester II
Learning (Chapter 5) …………………………………………….……12 Days
Cognition, Thinking & Intelligence (Chapters 6 & 7) …………..……15 Days
Developmental Psychology (Chapter 9)……………………………… 15 Days
Personality, Testing & Individual Differences (Chapter 11) ………….18 Days
60 Days
Trimester III
Emotion & Motivation. Stress & Coping (Chapters 8, 10 & 13)……….12 Days
Abnormal Behavior (Chapter 14)………………………………………..12 Days
Treatments of Mental Illness (Chapter 15)……………………………….6 Days
Review for AP Exam ……………………………………………………10 Days
Personal Portfolio Project (Grade 11)…………………..…………….… 20 Days
60 Days
Scope & Sequence by Units/Chapters
Unit One (Chapter One & Appendix A & B)
Introducing Psychology: History, Approaches & Methodology
CR #1 and CR #2
What is Psychology?
History of Psychology
o Nature vs. Nurture debate
o Important names in the development of Psychology
. Psychology in the 20th
o Psychodynamic Approach
o Behaviorism
o Humanism
o Biological Approach
o Evolutionary/Sociobiological Approach
o Cognitive Approach
o Multi-cultural/Socio-cultural Approach
Specialty Areas/Professions in Psychology
Methods of Psychology/ Thinking Critically About Psychology!
o The Scientific Method:
o The Four Basic Goals of Psychology:
Descriptive Methods/Correlational Studies
o Naturalistic Observation:
o Case Studies
o Surveys:
o Correlation Studies
Experimental Method
Measurement Scales/ Statistics
o Descriptive Statistics
o Measures of Central Tendency
o Measures of Variability;
o z Scores and Normal Curve
o Correlations
o Inferential Statistics
Ethical Guidelines in Psychological Research: Ethical Principles of Psychologists
and Code of Conduct;
The Use of Animals in Research:
Learning Objectives: When the students are finished studying this chapter, they should
be able to:
1. Define psychology and state how the definition has changed over time.
2. Explain how philosophy and physiology influenced psychology.
3. Describe the structuralist and functionalist schools of psychology, and identify
their differences and their common goals.
4. Identify two of William James’ students, and how they contributed to the field of
5. Describe behaviorism, noting its focus and methodology.
6. Describe the emphasis of Freud’s psychoanalysis.
7. Discuss humanistic psychology, with particular emphasis on how this approach
differs from behaviorism and psychoanalysis.
8. List the major perspectives in contemporary psychology, and discuss the scope of
9. List the specialty areas in contemporary psychology, and describe the focus of
10. Distinguish between psychology and psychiatry, and explain the role of
11. Define the scientific method, noting its four steps, and list four goals of
psychology in relation to the scientific method.
12. Explain the assumptions and attitudes of psychologists.
13. Describe naturalistic observation, and provide and example that illustrates this
14. Explain how case studies are used, and specify the benefits and limits of case
study research.
15. Compare and contrast surveys and interviews, and list the advantages and
disadvantages of each.
16. Describe correlation research, including what a correlation coefficient is, the
difference between positive and negative correlations, and the limitations of this
type of research.
17. Describe the experimental method, noting the basic terms and concepts, and state
its advantages and disadvantages.
18. Describe the variations in experimental design, and explain their relevance.
19. State what expectancy effect means, and explain the purpose of the placebocontrol procedure.
20. Describe the major provisions of the APA’s code of ethics for research with
human and animal subjects.
21. Define descriptive statistics and briefly discuss their uses.
22. Describe a frequency distribution, a histogram, and a frequency polygon, and
specify how they differ from each other.
23. Identify the three measures of central tendency, and provide examples of each.
24. Identify two measures of variability, explain how the z score is derived, and
describe the standard normal curve.
25. Define correlation, explain what the correlation coefficient is, and describe how
it is depicted graphically.
26. Describe how inferential statistics are used, and explain what is meant by
statistical significance.
26. Define population, and explain why sampling is used.
Unit Two (Chapter Twelve)
Social Psychology
CR #14
Social psychology
Social cognition
Social influence
Person perception
Social Categories
o Implicit Personality Theories:
o Physical Attractiveness
• Attribution
o Fundamental attribution.
o Just-world hypothesis,
• Actor-Observer Discrepancy
Self-Serving Bias
Cognitive dissonance
o Stereotypes
o In-Groups
o Out-Groups
o Ethnocentrism
Overcoming Prejudice
o Muzafer Sherif Robbers Cave” Experiment.
o Jigsaw classroom: Elliot Aronson
Conformity: Solomon Asch
Obedience: Stanley Milgram
Philip Zimbardo’s mock prison experiment
Helping Behavior:
o Kitty Genovese
o Prosocial Behavior.
o Altruism
o Latané and Darley’s Model of Helping Behavior
Bystander effect
Diffusion of responsibility
Social Loafing
Social Facilitation
Learning Objectives: When students finish studying this chapter, they should be able to:
1. Define social psychology, and describe its basic areas of research, social
cognition, and social influence
2. Discuss the four basic principles of person perception.
3. Explain how social categories, implicit personality theories, and physical
attractiveness affect person perception.
4. Describe the attribution process, and explain the roles of the fundamental
attribution error, the actor-observer discrepancy, and the self-serving bias in
shaping our attributions.
5. List the components of an attitude, and identify the conditions under which
attitudes are most likely to determine behavior.
6. Describe the process of cognitive dissonance, and explain how it affects attitudes.
7. Define prejudice, and discuss how stereotypes are formed, how they function, and
the problems associated with their use.
8. Explain how in-group/our-group thinking affects our social judgment, including
prejudice and stereotypes.
9. Discuss the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral bases for prejudice.
10. Describe Sherif’s research on combating prejudice at eh group level, and explain
how his findings can be applied in educational settings.
11. Explain the process doe overcoming prejudice at the individual level.
12. Describe Conformity as a form of social influence, and discuss Asch’s research on
13. Identify the factors that influence conformity, can explain how culture affects
14. Define obedience, and discuss Milgram’s obedience experiments, including the
basic design, the results, and the factors found to have contributed to obedience.
15. Identify the factors that Milgram later found to decrease the level of obedience
,and discuss the real-world implications of this research.
16. Discuss the ethical issues involved with the Milgram and Zimbardo experiments.
17. Explain what prosocial behavior is and how it differs from altruism
18. Identify the components of Latane and Darley’s model of helping behavior, and
list the factors that increase and decrease the likelihood that people will help each
19. Explain how the presence of other people can strongly influence individual
behavior, resulting in social loafing or social striving.
20. Define social facilitation and deindividuation, and identify the conditions under
which they occur.
Unit Three/Chapter Two
The Biological Foundations of Behavior
CR #3
Introduction/History: The Scope of Biological Psychology.
The Neuron: The Basic Unit of Communication
o Basic Definitions
o Characteristics of Neurons
o Communication Within the Neuron: The All-or-None Action Potential
o Communication Between the Neurons:
o Neurotransmitters
o How Drugs Affect Synaptic Transmission;
The Nervous System and the Endocrine System: Communication throughout the
o The Central Nervous System
o The Peripheral Nervous System
The Endocrine System;
Studying the Brain:
o Case Studies:
o Imaging the Brain
A Guided Tour of the Brain
o The Brain Stem
o Hindbrain
o Midbrain Structure
The Split Brain
Specialization in the Cerebral Hemispheres
o Language and the Left Hemisphere:
o Broca’s area.
o Wernicke’s area.
o Aphasia
Structural plasticity.
Behavioral Genetics:
Nondisjunctional error.
Twin studies.
The Human Genome Project
Psychosocial dwarfism
Learning Objectives: When students are finished with this chapter they should be able
1. Define biological psychology & explain why psychologists are concerned with
human biology
2. Describe the functions of the neurons and glial cells, and distinguish among the
three types of neurons.
3. Identify the basic components of the neurons, and explain the process that takes
place within the neuron when it is activated.
4. Explain how information is communicated between neurons, and describe the
effects of neurotransmitters on behavior and functioning.
5. Describe the functions of the two major parts of the central nervous system, and
explain how pain reflexes work.
6. Identify the divisions and the subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system and
describe their functions, focusing on the different but complementary functions of
the divisions of the automatic nervous system.
7. Describe the functions of the endocrine system, and explain the role that
hormones play.
8. Discuss the functions of the major endocrine glands, and explain the relationship
between the hypothalamus and the endocrine glands.
9. Explain how case studies of brain-damaged humans and lesions performed on
animals have helped to unlock some of the mysteries of the brain.
10. Identify the five major imaging techniques used to study the brain, and discuss
their different uses.
11. Name the three major divisions of the brain.
12. Identify the structures of the brain stem, and describe their functions.
13. Describe the forebrain’s cerebral cortex, and explain the functions of its four
14. Discuss the role of the association areas.
15. Name the four subcortical structures of the forebrain, and explain the function of
16. Describe the limbic system, and list the responses and behaviors affected by it.
17. Explain what is meant by cortical localization, and state why it is important.
18. Define aphasia, and differentiate between Broca’s aphasia and Wernicke’s
19. Describe the split-brain operation, give reasons for it, and discuss what it has
contributed to our knowledge about brain specialization.
20. List the most important functions of each cerebral cortex.
21. Describe how a person’s genetic makeup results from the pairing of the biological
parents’ chromosomes.
22. Define genotype and phenotype, and explain the role of environmental factors in
the expression of inherited traits.
23. Compare the function of dominant and recessive genes, and explain why males
are more likely to display sex-linked recessive traits.
24. Describe some of the more common syndromes that result from genetic errors.
Unit Four/Chapter Three
Sensation and Perception
CR #4
Basic Principles of Sensation
The Eye
o Processing Visual Information
o Color Vision
Chemical and Body Senses
o Smell
o Taste
The Skin and Body Senses;
Movement, Position, and Balance
o Attention
o The Perception of Shape
o Depth Perception:
o The Perception of Motion
o Perceptual Constancies
o Perceptual Illusions
o Effects of Experience on Perceptual Interpretation.
Learning Objectives: When students have finished studying this chapter, they should be
able to:
1. Define sensation and perception and then give examples that illustrate their
2. Explain the process of transduction.
3. Discuss absolute and difference thresholds, and describe how Weber’s Law
explains the just noticeable difference.
4. Describe the process of sensory adaptation.
5. Explain the process of vision, noting the parts of the eye and their functions.
6. Describe the functions of rods and cones and the transduction of neural impulse to
the brain.
7. Discuss how the trichromatic and opponent-process theories each explain aspects
of color vision.
8. Describe the nature of sound, and list the physical properties of sound waves
9. Explain the process of audition, noting all the parts of the ear.
10. Distinguish between the place and frequency theories of audition, and specify
how each attempts to explain the phenomenon of pitch.
11. Describe the process of olfaction and the role played by the olfactory nerve,
olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex.
12. Distinguish between flavor and taste, and describe the role of the taste buds in
13. Identify the skin senses, and list their perspective functions.
14. Describe the process involved in pain perception.
15. Specify the pathological factors that influence the perception of pain, and explain
the role of endorphins.
16. Describe the role of kinesthetic and vestibular senses in body position, balance,
and equilibrium.
17. Identify the three questions that describe the focus of perceptual processing.
18. Describe the goals of Gestalt psychology, noting the rules of figure-ground
relationships and grouping.
19. List and describe the monocular cues used in in-depth perception.
20. Name the binocular cues and give examples of each.
21. Identify the sources of information that influence motion perception, and describe
different types of apparent motion.
22. Discuss how auditory cues influence our perception of distance and direction of
23. Describe the process of shape perception, and explain its relevance in identifying
24. List and describe the three forms of constancy, and specify the principles, and
specify the principles that guide our unchanging perception of objects.
25. State why psychologists are interested in perceptual illusions, noting the
theoretical reasons for their occurrence.
26. Discuss the concept of an impossible figure, and describe the relevance of these
figures for perceptual psychology.
27. Describe the effects of educational, cultural and life experiences on perceptual
Unit Five (Chapter Four)
Consciousness and Its Variations
CR #5
Circadian Rhythm
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
Free running circadian rhythms
Circadian Rhythms and Sunlight
Modern Sleep Research
Stages of Sleep
Changes in Sleep Patterns over the Lifespan
Why Do We Sleep?
Sleep Disorders
Dreams and Mental Activity during Sleep
Significance of Dreams
Psychoactive Drugs
Properties of Psychoactive Drugs?
Why Do People Abuse Drugs
Depressants: Alcohol, Barbiturates & Inhalants
Barbiturates and Tranquilizers
Psychedelic Drugs: Mescaline, LSD, and Marijuana
Learning Objectives: When students have finished studying this chapter, they should be
able to:
1. Define consciousness, and discuss the history of consciousness in psychological
2. Define circadian rhythms, and explain the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus
(SCN) in the sleep-wake cycle.
3. Describe the research on “free-running” circadian rhythms, and explain the role of
sunlight in regulating the sleep-wake cycle.
4. Describe the effects of jet lag, and explain how melatonin is involved.
5. Discuss the contributions of the invention of the electroencephalograph and the
discovery of REM sleep to modern sleep research.
6. Define REM and NREM sleep, and describe the characteristics of the various
stages of sleep.
7. List the changes in sleep patterns over the lifespan.
8. Specify the functions of sleep, and state what sleep deprivation studies have
9. Contrast the two theories of sleep, and give evidence to support each theory.
10. Describe the main characteristics of he major sleep disorders.
11. Distinguish between sleep thinking and a dream.
12. Identify five characteristics of dreams and specify the most common themes in
13. Explain why we don’t remember our dreams, and describe nightmares and lucid
14. Compare and contrast Freud’s theory of dreams as wish fulfillment and the
activation-synthesis model of dreaming.
15. Define hypnosis, and list the characteristics of the hypnotic state, focusing in the
characteristics of people who are most responsive to hypnosis.
16. Specify the effects of hypnosis, describe posthypnotic suggestion, and explain the
relationship between hypnosis and memory.
17. Explain the role of dissociation in hypnosis, particularly in relation to the hidden
observer phenomenon.
18. List and describe the most common techniques used in meditation, and explain
their effects.
19. Identify the common properties of psychoactive drugs, and specify the factors that
influence the effects, use, and abuse of psychoactive drugs.
20. Name and describe the characteristics of the most common depressants,
stimulants, opiates, ad psychedelic drugs, and list their physical and psychological
Unit Six (Chapter Five)
CR #6
What is learning?
Classical Conditioning:
o Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov
o Principles of classical
o Factors that Affect Conditioning
o Conditioned Emotional Reactions:
o Conditioned Physiological Responses
Contemporary Views of Classical Conditioning.
o Cognitive Aspects of Classical Conditioning
o Reliable Signals
o Evolutionary Aspects of Classical Conditioning:
o Taste aversions
Theoretical Models of classical conditioning
o Contiguity Model
o Contingency Model
Operant Conditioning
o Thorndike and the Law of Effect
o Instrumental learning
o B. F. Skinner
o Positive reinforcement
o Negative reinforcement
o Punishment
o Learned Helplessness
o Schedules of reinforcement.
o Applications for Operant Conditioning.
Contemporary Views of Operant Conditioning
o Cognitive Aspects of Operant Conditioning
o Operant Conditioning and Biological Predispositions
Observational Learning
Cognitive Learning
o Role of Biology
o Role Culture
o Role of mental processes
Learning Objectives: When students have finished studying this chapter, they should be
able to:
1. Define learning and conditioning, and name the two form of conditioning.
2. Describe the three perspectives in the scientific study of learning.
3. Describe the general procedures used n classical conditioning as demonstrated by
Pavlov’s experiments.
4. Explain the process of acquisition, generalization and discrimination, extinction,
and spontaneous recovery as they occur in classical conditioning.
5. Discuss the principles of behaviorism, and describe how emotional reactions and
physiological responses can be conditioned.
6. Explain the roles played by cognitive processes and biological predispositions in
classical conditioning.
7. Describe the procedures used in operant conditioning as demonstrated by
Skinner’s experiments, and identify the types of reinforcers.
8. Compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement, as well as punishment
by application and punishment by removal.
9. Describe the shaping procedure used in operant conditioning.
10. Explain the difference between continuous and partial reinforcement, then
describe and give examples of each of the four schedules of reinforcement.
11. Explain what is meant by latent learning and cognitive maps, and give examples
of each.
12. Explain the role played by biological predispositions in operant conditioning.
13. Explain the role of modeling in children’s learning, and describe how modeling
applies to adult behaviors.
Unit Seven (Chapters Six and Seven)
Memory, Intelligence, Thinking and Language
CR #7 and CR #11
Memory (Chapter 6)
What is Memory .
Memory Processes:
o Encoding
o Storage
o Retrieval
o Short-term memory
o long-term memory.
o Sensory Memory
o Procedural information.
o Episodic information
o Semantic information
o Serial position effect
o Encoding Specificity Principle.
o Context effect
o State-dependent retrieval
o Mood congruence
o Flashbulb memory
Reconstructing Memories:
o Schemas
o Source confusion
o False memory
o Distortions in Eyewitness testimony
Herman Ebbinghaus: The Forgetting Curve.
Factors that Influence Forgetting
Biological Basis of Memory
o Role of Neurons
o Processing Memories in the Brain:
Retrograde amnesia
Anterograde amnesia
Infantile amnesia
Brain Structures involving Memory
Learning Objectives: When students have finished studying this chapter, they should be
able to:
1. Define memory, and explain the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval.
2. Describe the stage model of memory, and describe how each of the three stages
functions within this model.
3. Discuss the function, duration, and capacity of sensory memory, and distinguish
between visual and auditory sensory memory.
4. Discuss the function, duration, and capacity of short-term memory, or working,
memory, and list the various ways for overcoming its limitations.
5. Discuss the function, duration, and capacity of long-term memory, and specify
factors that increase the efficiency of long-term encoding.
6. Distinguish among the basic types of information in long-term memory, including
the subsystems to which they belong, and explain how these types of information
are organized.
7. Define retrieval, noting how retrieval cues work, and describe what happens when
retrieval fails, as in the TOT experience.
8. Describe how retrieval is tested, and explains the serial position effect.
9. Discuss the different forms of encoding specifically, and evaluate the accuracy of
flashbulb memories.
10. Explain how retrieval involves the active reconstruction of memories.
11. Describe how factors such as schemas and source confusion contribute to
memory distortions (false memories).
12. List the factors that can reduce the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, and
describe how the misinformation effect works in memory distortion.
13. Define forgetting, and describe its functions in everyday life.
14. Discuss the early scientific study of memory, and describe Ebbinghaus’s
forgetting curve.
15. Discuss possible reasons for encoding failure – as proposed by interference
theory – the concept of motivated forgetting, and decay theory.
16. Explain how memories are both localized and distributed in the brain.
17. Discuss the role of neurons in long-term memory.
18. Describe how case studies of people with amnesia, or severe memory loss,
have provided important insights into the brain structures involves in memory.
19. Describe the roles of different brain structures in normal memory.
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence (Chapter 7)
Problem Solving
o Trial and error
o Algorithm
o Heuristic
Obstacles to Solving Problem:
o Decision-making strategies
o Language and Thought.
Characteristic of Language
o How Language Influence Thinking.
o Animal Communication
o Intelligence tests
o Lewis Terman
o Alfred Binet
o Intelligence quotient
o David Wechsler Intelligence Scales
Test Construction
o Achievement test
o Aptitude test
o Standardization
o Normal curve
o Reliability
o Validity.
Theories of Intelligence
o Charles Spearman
o Louis L. Thurstone
o Howard Gardner
o Robert Sternberg
Role of Genetics & Environment in Determining Intelligence.
o Twin studies
o Group differences in IQ scores.
Learning Objectives: When students have finished studying this chapter, they should be
able to:
1. Define cognition, and explain how cognitive abilities are related to the concept of
2. Define thinking, and describe how mental images
3. Discuss concept formation, differentiating between natural concepts and formal
concepts, and explain the role played by prototypes in concept formation.
4. . Describe the basic steps in problem solving.
5. Describe the various problem-solving strategies, and discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of each.
6. Explain how functional fixedness and mental sets interfere with problem solving.
7. Describe four cognitive strategies that are used when the decision making process
is complex involving multiple factors.
8.. Explain how heuristics are used when decisions are made under conditions of
9. Identify the five most important characteristics of language.
10. Describe the relationship between language and thinking.
11. Present evidence for and against the proposition that animals can learn language.
12. Define intelligence, and explain how Binet, Terman, and Wechsler differ in their
beliefs about intelligence and its measure.
13. Explain the purpose of aptitude and achievement tests, and discuss the main
principles of test construction, noting their importance in the development of a
scientifically accepted test.
14. Describe the two key issues in the debate on the nature of intelligence, and
compare and contrast the views of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg.
15. Discuss the heredity and environment issue, and describe the factors that
contribute to the complexity of the relationship between genetics and environment,
especially with regard to intelligence.
16. Define hereditability, and explain how twin studies are used in studying the
heredity-environment issue,
17. Describe research findings on group differences in average IQ and explain why
generalization about individuals cannot be made on the basis of these findings.
18. Explain how culture might affect intelligence tests, and present the results of
cross-cultural studies in the effect of social discrimination on IQ.
Unit Eight (Chapter Nine)
Developmental Psychology
CR #9
Developmental psychology
o Nature vs. nurture
o Continuity vs. discontinuity
Genetic Blueprint
o Dominant and Recessive Genes
o The Sex Chromosomes
o Sex-Linked Recessive Characteristics.
Prenatal Development.
o Germinal period
o Embryonic period
o Teratogens
Fetal period
o Infancy and Childhood.
Physical Development
o Social and Personality Development
Temperament/Chess and Thomas
Attachment/Mary D. Salter Ainsworth
Harry Harlow and surrogate mother
Language Development/Parentese
Cognitive Development
o Jean Piaget
o Renee Baillargeon
o Lev Vygotsky
o Social Development
Parent-child relationships
Erik Erikson
o Moral Reasoning
Lawrence Kohlberg
Carol Gilligan
Adult Development
o Physical Changes
o Social Development
Late Adulthood and Aging.
o Cognitive Changes
o Social Development
o Impact of technology on lifespan
Quality of life across cultures
Death & Dying/Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
Learning Objectives: When students finish studying this chapter, they should be able to:
1. Define developmental psychology, and specify its scope and key themes.
2. Describe how a person’s genetic makeup results from the paring of the biological
parents’ chromosomes.
3. Define genotype and phenotype, and explain the role of environmental factors in
the expression of inherited traits.
4. Compare the function of dominant and recessive genes, and explain why males
are more likely to display sex-linked recessive traits.
5. Describe how the single-celled zygote develops into a full-term fetus, noting the
three stages of prenatal development.
6. Explain what teratogens are, and discuss the general principles that seem to
govern their impact on the fetus.
7. Identify the sensory capabilities and reflexes of newborns that enhance their
chances for survival, and explain how these abilities promote the development of
relationships with caregivers.
8. Describe how the brain develops after birth.
9. Differentiate between temperament and attachment, and identify the main
temperamental patterns.
10. Explain the basic premise of attachment theory, and describe how attachment is
11. Discuss language development, focusing on how it results from a combination of
biological predisposition and caregiver encouragement.
12. Identify the stages of language development.
13. Describe Jean Piaget’s stage theory of cognitive development, specifying the four
stages, and discuss the criticisms Piaget’s theory.
14. List the characteristics that signal the onset of adolescence.
15. Identify the main aspects of adolescents’ relationships with parents and peers, and
explain how adolescents begin the process of identity formation.
16. Describe Erikson’s psychosocial theory of lifespan development.
17. Describe Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, noting the stages and levels,
and explain how moral reasoning is influenced by gender and culture.
18. Describe the physical changes that take place in adulthood, and identify some of
the general patterns of social development that occur.
19. Explain how the transition to parenthood affects adults.
20. Describe Shaie’s longitudinal research on the effects of aging on physical and
cognitive abilities.
21. Identify the cognitive changes that take place in late adulthood, and list the factors
that can influence social development during this stage of development.
22. Describe Kubler-Ross’ stage theory of dying and assess its validity.
Unit Nine (Chapter Eleven)
Personality, Testing & Individual Differences
CR #10 and CR #11
Human Development and Personality
Psychodynamic Theories
Tools used to Study Personality:
Patterns of Human Development:
o Critical Period
o Nature vs. nurture
Psychoanalytic Perspective
o Sigmund Freud
o Levels of consciousness
o Structure: Id, Ego, Superego:
o Ego Defense mechanisms
o Psychosexual Stages of Development
o Carl Jung
o Karen Horney
o Alfred Adler
o Erik Erikson
Behavioristic Model/B.F. Skinner
Social Cognitive Perspective
o Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory
o Julian Rotter’s Expectancy Theory
The Humanistic Perspective on Personality
o Abraham Maslow the hierarchy of needs/self-actualization.
o Carl Rogers/actualizing tendency
Trait Perspective
o Gordon Allport
o Raymond Cattell
o Hans Eysenck
Cognitve Model of Personality
o George Kelly’s Personal Constructive Theory
o Fritz Heider’s Attribution Theory
Personality Traits and Genetics
o Behavioral genetics
o Siblings
Assessing Personality
Projective tests
o Rorschach Inkblot Test
o Apperception Test (TAT)
o Self-Report Inventories
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
California Personality Inventory
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Learning Objectives: When students are finished studying this chapter, they should be
able to:
1. Define personality, and discuss the four basic theoretical perspectives in
2. Describe the main influences on personality development according to the
psychoanalytic perspective, and identify some of the key influences on Freud’s
3. Describe Freud’s view of the various levels of consciousness, and identify the
functions of the three basic structures of personality.
4. List the main defense mechanisms, and specify the role played by each.
5. Describe the psychosexual stages of development, focusing on the core conflict at
each stage, and explain the consequence of fixation.
6. Compare and contrast Freud’s psychoanalytic theory with the theories of
Neofreudians Jung, Horney, and Adler.
7. Discuss the influence of the psychoanalytic perspective on Western culture and
8. Identify three criticisms of Freud’s theory and, more generally, the psychoanalytic
9. Describe the focus of the humanistic perspective.
10. Explain the roles of the self-concept, the actualizing tendency, and unconditional
positive regard in Roger’s personality theory.
11. Identify the key strengths and weaknesses of the humanistic perspective.
12. Describe the focus of the social cognitive perspective, and discuss how feelings of
self-efficacy affect personality.
13. Specify the strengths and weaknesses of the social cognitive perspectives.
14. Describe the focus of trait theories of personality, and distinguish between surface
traits and source traits.
15. Identify and describe the three most influential trait theories.
16. Explain how the expression of personality traits is affected by situational
17. Describe the focus of behavioral genetics, and explain what a heritability estimate
is and how it is determined.
18. Discuss the respective roles of heredity and environment on personality.
19. List the key strengths and weaknesses of the trait perspective.
20. Identify the basic goals of psychological tests, and describe how projective tests
and self-report inventories are used to measure personality.
21. Identify the key strengths and weaknesses of projective tests and self-report
Unit Ten (Chapters Eight, Ten & Thirteen)
Motivation and Emotions, Stress & Coping
CR #8
Motivation and Emotion (Chapter 8)
Instinctive/Biological Theories
Drive theories
Incentive Theories
Psychological Motives
Humanistic Theories/Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
The Motivation to Eat
o Hunger and satiation
o Stomach
o Brain /hypothalamus
o Set Point
o Metabolic rate/basal metabolic rate
Anorexia nervosa
Bulimia nervosa
Arousal Theories
o Yerkes-Dodson law
o Curiosity and Exploratory behavior
o Sensation Seeking.
o Cognitive consistency theory (Leon Festinger)
Sexual Motivation
o Neurological Factors
o Behavioral Factors
o Cultural/Societal Factors
o Evolutionary Factors;
o Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation
o Parenting Types
o Cultural Influences
Competence &Achievement Motivation
o Self-Efficacy
o Mood
o Subjective Experience of Emotions
o Culture
o Individual differences
o Physiological Components
Expression of Emotion/Paul Ekman
James Lange Theory of Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion/Schachter & Schachter
Cognitive-Mediational Theory/Richard Lazarus
Experiencing Emotions/ Matsumoto:
o Happiness
o Fear
o Anger/Cathartic Hypothesis
Biology of Emotion
o Brain Mechanisms
o Automatic Nervous System
Learning Objectives: When students have finished studying this chapter, they should be
able to:
1. Define motivation, and describe the three characteristics associated with
2. Discuss how each of the major theories explains motivation, and specify the
limitations of each theory.
3. Describe the concept of drive, and explain how it is related to homeostasis.
4. Identify the stages in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and describe the focus of
today’s researchers in motivation.
5. Specify the motivational factors that influence our eating behavior.
6. Explain how the various physiological factors influence our hunger and eating
7. Explain how body weight is regulated, according to the energy balance model. and
describe the role of basal metabolic rate in weight regulation.
8. Describe how set-point theory accounts for the regulation of body weight, and
explain the causes of obesity.
9. Disrupt two disorders that disrupt normal eating habits.
10. Explain how arousal theory accounts for curiosity and exploratory behavior.
11. Specify what is meant by sensation-seeking behavior, and list characteristics of
people who are sensation-seeking.
12. Compare and contrast competence and achievement motivation.
13. Describe how achievement motivation is measured, and explain how competence
and achievement motivation are related to self-efficacy.
14. Identify the three components of emotion, and specify the many functions of
emotions in human behavior and relationships.
15. Explain how culture and individual differ3ences influence emotional experience.
16. Describe the physical changes associated with different emotions.
17. Discuss the idea that facial expressions of the basic emotions are innate, and
explain how facial expressions are affected by cultural display rules.
18. Compare and contrast the four key theories of emotion in terms of which of the t
three components of emotion each emphasizes.
19. Discuss current thinking about the source of emotion.
Sexuality and Gender (Chapter 10)
Gender and Sexuality
Gender Stereotypes & Gender Roles.
Gender-Role Development
Gender differences in childhood behaviors
Gender Roles Theories
o Social learning theory
o Gender schema theory
Human Sexuality/What motivates Sexual Behavior?
o Sexual Orientation
o Determinants of Sexual Orientation
Sexuality during Infancy and Childhood
Sexuality during Adolescence
Sexuality in Early and Middle Adulthood.
Sexual relationships in Late Adulthood
Sexual Dysfunction
o The Paraphilia
o Gender Identity Disorder
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
The AIDS Epidemic.
Learning Objectives: When students finish studying the chapter, they should be able to:
1. Distinguish between sex and gender, and define gender role, gender identify, and
sexual orientation.
2. Define gender-role stereotypes, and explain how men and women differ in terms
of personality characteristics, cognitive abilities, and sexual attitudes and behavior
3. List the gender differences that develop during childhood, and describe exactly
how social learning and gender schema theories deal with the development of
gender roles.
4. Specify the important role gender plays in our culture, noting how boys and girls
are treated differently.
5. Explain how sexual motivation differs for lower and higher animals, and specify
the biological factors that are involved in sexual motivation.
6. Discuss the factors that may play a role in determining sexual orientation.
7. Describe how sexuality develops throughout infancy and childhood.
8. Define puberty, and identify the primary and secondary sexual characteristics.
9. Explain how sexual motivation differs for lower and higher animals, and specify
the biological factors that are involved in sexual motivation.
10. Discuss the factors that may play a role in determining sexual orientation.
11. Describe how sexuality develops throughout infancy and childhood.
12. Define puberty, and identify the primary and secondary sexual characteristics.
13. Specify the factors that influence the onset of menarche and describe the timing of
14. Describe the characteristics of the sexual relationships that develop during
15. Characterize the sexual behavior patterns of adults, and list the important aspects
of sexual relationships.
16. Describe the paraphilias, and explain how they differ from dysfunctions.
17. Explain what a gender identity disorder is.
18. Specify how sexual diseases are transmitted, and explain why STDs, especially
the HIV virus, pose serious health problems.
Stress, Health and Coping (Chapter 13)
Health psychology.
Sources of Stress
o Life events and change.
o Holmes & Richard/Social Readjustment Rating Scale
o Daily hassles
o Richard Lazarus
approach-approach conflict
Social and Cultural Sources of Stress
Physical Effects of Stress
o Endocrine System
o Walter Cannon: Stress and the fight-or-flight respons
o Hans Selye: Stress/general adaptation syndrome
o Stress it the Immune System
o Robert Ader
o Janice Kiecolt-Glaser & Ronald Glaser
Psychological control that Influence Response to Stress
o Explanatory style: Martin Seligman
o Chronic negative emotions
o Type A Type B behavior pattern.
Social Factors that Influence Response to Stress
Social support that Influence Response to Stress
Gender differences that Influence Response to Stress
o Problem-Focused
o Emotion-Focused Coping
o Culture and Coping Strategies
o individualistic cultures
o collectivistic cultures
Learning Objectives: When students finish studying this chapter, they should be able to:
1. Explain how researchers define stress and stressors.
2. Identify the focus of health psychology, and explain how health psychologists are
guided by the biopsychosocial model.
3. Explain how life events, daily hassles, conflict, and social and cultural factors
contribute to stress, and identify the problems associated with the life events
4. Specify how stress can contribute to health problems both directly and indirectly.
5. Describe Cannon’s and Selye's contributions to the early understanding of stress,
noting the endocrine pathways that are involved in the fight-or-flight response and the
general adaptation syndrome.
6. Explain how stress can undermine health by impairing the immune system, and
describe how the work of Ader and Cohen challenged the existing view of the
immune system.
7. Define psychoneuroimmunology, and explain how the immune system interacts with
the nervous system.
8. Identify the kinds of stressors that affect immune system functioning.
9. Discuss how psychological factors such as feelings of control, explanatory style, and
chronic negative emotions can affect our response to stress.
10. Describe Type A behavior, and specify the role that hostility plays in its relationship
to health.
11. Explain how social support benefits health, as well as how it can increase stress.
12. Describe research findings on gender differences in social support.
13. Discuss what is meant by “coping with stress,” and describe the typical uses of the
two basic forms of coping.
14. Describe the most common coping strategies, and explain how culture affects coping
Unit Eleven (Chapter Fourteen)
Abnormal Behavior
CR #12
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders:.
Historical Perspective
Major Models of Abnormal Behavior
o Nonpsychological Models
o Statistical Model
o Medical Model
o Psychological Perspectives or Models
o Behaviorist Perspective
o Biopsychological Perspective
Abnormal Behavior:
o Cultural relativism
o Maladaptive behavior as seen by self or others
o Nature vs. Nurture
o Misconceptions regarding abnormal behavior
o Continuum Concept: from least disruptive to most disruptive
o Mental Status Examinations
o Mental Illness Figures
o Five Axis
Categories of Disorder Descriptions
o Adjustment Disorders
o Neurosis
o Anxiety Disorders
o Panic Disorders
Phobic Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
Post-Traumatic Distress Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
Factitious Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform disorders
Conversion Disorder
Psychogenic Pain Disorder
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder
Brief psychotic disorder
Schizoaffective Disorder
Delusional Disorder
Brief Psychotic
Shared Psychotic Disorder (folie à deux)
Psychotic Disorder Secondary to a General Medical Condition
Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder
Mood Disorders
Seasonal Affective Disorder
Dementia - from the Latin
Amnestic Disorder
Learning Objectives: When students finish studying this chapter, they should be able to:
1. Define psychopathology, and identify the characteristics of abnormal behavior,
then provide the formal definition of a psychological disorder.
2. Describe DSM IV, including its contents and the history of its development, and
identify the prevalence of psychological disorders.
3. Specify the environmental factors that may contribute to the development of
mental illness.
4. Describe the main symptom of anxiety disorders, and differentiate between
pathological anxiety and normal anxiety.
5. Identify the symptoms that characterize generalized anxiety disorder and panic
6. Explain what a phobia is, describe the most common types of phobias, and
discuss the two explanations offered for the development of a phobia.
7. List the main characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and state
what causes it.
8. Identify the main symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and discuss
current thinking about its causes.
9. Explain what is meant by mood disorders, and identify the symptoms of major
depression, noting how it differs from dysthmic disorder.
10. Describe the course of depression, and state how prevalent it is.1
11. Describe the characteristic mood swings of bipolar disorder, compare it to
cyclothymic disorder, and discuss the prevalence and course of bipolar disorders.
12. Identify the factors that are thought to be involved in the development of mood
13. Describe the broad characteristics of personality disorders, and differentiate
among the paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders.
14. Describe the dissociate experience, and identify the symptoms and causes of
dissociate amnesia and dissociative fugue.
14. Describe the symptoms and possible causes of dissociative identity disorder
(DID), and explain why some psychologists are skeptical about DID.
15. Describe the core symptoms of schizophrenia, differentiating between positive
and negative symptoms.
16. List the main subtypes of schizophrenia, and describe the course and prevalence
of this disorder.
17. Describe the evidence that points to the involvement of genetic factors and brain
abnormalities in the development of schizophrenia.
18. Specify the environmental factors that may contribute to the development of
Unit Twelve (Chapter Fifteen)
Treatment of Mental Illness
CR #13
Biomedical therapies
Psychoanalytical Therapy
o Short-term Dynamic Therapies
Humanistic Therapy
o Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy.
Behavioral Therapy.
o Mary Cover Jones
o Counterconditioning
o Systematic Desensitization.
o The bell and pad treatment
o Aversive conditioning
Operant Conditioning.
o B.F. Skinner/token economy
Cognitive Therapies
o Albert Ellis and Rational-Emotive Therapy
o Aaron Beck and Cognitive Therapy
Group Therapy
Family and Couple Therapy
Culture & Psychotherapy
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
Biomedical Therapies
o Antipsychotic Drugs
o Antianxiety Drugs
o Lithium
o Antidepressant Medications
o Electroconvulsive Therapy
Ethical considerations when treating the mentally ill
Learning Objectives: When students finish studying this chapter, they should be able to:
1. Define psychotherapy, noting what types of problems are treated by these
techniques, and identify the basic assumptions common to all forms of
2. Describe biomedical therapy, and identify the assumptions on which it is based
3. Discuss psychoanalysis in terms of Freud’s basic theory, and describe the
techniques used by psychoanalysis.
4. Describe the features that short-term psychodynamic theories have in common.
5. Describe the conditions and techniques that ate important in client-centered
5. Explain how client-centered therapy and psychoanalysis differ in terms of the role
insight plays in each.
6. Broadly define behavior therapy, and explain how classical conditioning
principles are used to treat specific problem behaviors.
8. Describe how operant conditioning principles are applied to modify problem
9. Identify the assumptions on which cognitive therapies are based.
10. Describe the basic assumptions and techniques of Ellis’s rational-emotive
11. Describe Beck’s cognitive therapy, and explain how it differs from rationalemotive therapy.
12. Describe how group therapy works, and list some of the key advantages of this
13. Explain what family therapy is, and differentiate it from individual therapy
14. Describe the problems that can occur when psychotherapists and clients hold
different cultural values.
15. Identify the cultural values that are inherent in Western psychotherapy, and
explain how that clash with the values of other cultures.
16. Discuss the general effectiveness of psychotherapy, according to meta-analysis,
and explain whether psychotherapy is more effective than no treatment at all.
17. List the factors that are in common to all effective psychotherapies, and explain
what eclecticism means in psychotherapy.
18. Identify the most important antipsychotic, antidepressant, and antianxiety
medications (including lithium), explain how they achieve their effects, and list
the disadvantages of using these medications.
19. Discuss the purpose of ECT and the controversy surrounding it.
Unit Thirteen: Personal Portfolio
1. Cover
2. Dedication Page (Optional)
3. Table of Contents
4. Personal Resume
5. “My Favorites”
6. Genealogy: (Optional but students are encouraged to do this!)
7. Interview with Parents
8. My Family
9. My Friends
10. Activities: School, Church, Community, Job, Hobbies
11. Awards/Recognitions/Honors Received (Optional)
12. Religious/Spiritual/Philosophical/Motivational/Points to Ponder. This section may
include appropriate original poems, writings, etc. Does life follow a
psychological model?
13. Beauty: pictures, photos, poems, etc. No pictures of gorgeous guys and gals!
Again, original poetry may be included!
14. Mementoes & Memorabilia. Even though the student can and probably will
exceed the minimum, each is asked to be selective on what is chosen to represent
who he/she is!
15. Humor. What makes the student smile, chuckle, or laugh hysterically? Jokes,
cartoons, comic strips, anecdotes, stories are fine. NOTE: No vulgar, crude, or
inappropriate items!
16. Essays. All four (seven if a junior) essays are required and must be doublespaced and typed. As the student writes these essays, he/she is asked to think abut
the theories of Freud, Piaget, Erikson, Kohlberg, Maslow, etc. How do they see
themselves as a result of learning about these theories in this course? How do
these theorists relate to their philosophy of life? Has this course, and in particular
this assignment changed them in any way?
Essay Topics
#1 “Some Memorable Events in My Life”
#2 “Some of the Special People in My Life”
#3 “My Hopes and Dreams for the Future”
#4 “Reflections on My Book of Reflections”
Juniors Only!
#5 “Teachers in My Life”
#6 “Three Lessons I have Learned in Life”
#7 “What Psychology Has Taught Me”
17. Other (Optional): Technology Component. If the student desires, he/she may
create a PowerPoint of pictures, music, etc.!
Learning Objectives: When students are finished compiling their personal portfolios,
they should be able to:
1.) Apply basic principles of psychology to their own lives.
2.) Make meaningful analyses of people and events in lives.
3.) Appreciate that the field of psychology is one that directly their individual lives.