Download Grade 10 Grammar Packet FANBOYS-‐Coordinating Conjunctions

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Transcript
Grade 10 Grammar Packet FANBOYS-­‐Coordinating Conjunctions For And Nor But Or Yet So Subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns WABU WABU WATIST Where When Which/Why As Although After Because Before That Until Unless If Since Then *If you see any of these words, then you know that you have a dependent clause somewhere FIDDS-­‐Style Analysis Figurative Language Imagery Details Diction Syntax Figurative Language-­‐Figures of Speech S-­‐Simile S-­‐Synecdoche (metonymy) S-­‐Symbol P-­‐Personification O-­‐Overstatement (or hyperbole), understatement (litote), oxymoron P-­‐Paradox I-­‐Irony A-­‐Allusion, Apostrophe M-­‐Metaphor Purposes of Sentences A declarative sentence makes a statement. Example: The situation is worsening. An imperative sentence gives a command. Example: Give me five dollars Jane. An interrogative sentence asks a question. Example: What does it feel like to be hungry? An exclamatory sentence provides emphasis or expresses strong emotion. Watch out for that dog in the street! Sentences-­‐Structure A complex sentence is made up of two clauses that are not equal in importance. The more important idea should be included in the independent clause, which can stand alone as a single sentence. The less important idea should be included in the dependent clause, which cannot stand alone. The two clauses in a complex sentence can be connected with a subordinate conjunction (after, although, because, before, even though, until, when, and so on) or a relative pronoun (who, whose, which, or that).  Even though LeBron sprained his ankle, he sunk the winning free throw. (dependent clause, independent clause)  It isn’t funny when a practical joke continues until someone’s feelings are hurt. (independent clause, two dependent clauses) A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon. Example: The dam cost over $1 billion, and more than 50,000 people worked on it. A compound-­‐complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses. Example: Once the dam was built, thousands of villages gained electricity, and the power station, which has been enlarged several times, has been important to the growing population. A loose or cumulative sentence has its main clause at the beginning of the sentence. Example: Sam was studying at the kitchen table, memorizing a list of vocabulary words, completely focused, intent on acing tomorrow’s Spanish quiz. “They are wonderfully built homes, aluminum skin, double-­‐walled, with insulation, and often paneled with walls of hardwood.” -­‐John Steinbeck, Travels with Charley “Jeff couldn’t see the musician clearly, just a figure on a chair on the stage, holding what looked like a misshapen guitar.” -­‐Cynthia Voight, A Solitary Blue A periodic sentence is one that postpones the crucial or most surprising idea until the end. Example: Following my mother’s repeated threats to ground me for life, I decided it was time to propose a compromise. “There is only one way to achieve happiness on this terrestrial ball—and that is to have either a clear conscience or no conscience at all.” -­‐Ogden Nash, I’m a Stranger Here Myself” A simple sentence can have a single subject or a compound subject. It can have a single predicate or a compound predicate. It has no independent clauses. Example: The Aswan High Dam stretches for two miles. Parts of Speech and Related Elements Form Class Words Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs constitute the primary “content” words in our language; they communicate the most meaning. These “form class” words (so named because they can often be identified by their form, such as their prefixes and suffixes) make up the largest number of words in our language. Also, new form class words come into being or change quite frequently. As our world grows and changes, we need new nouns and verbs and modifiers to talk about our world. These four primary classes of words are presented below, interspersed with related elements and terms. 1.
noun-­‐a word that names something 2.
noun phrase-­‐the noun headword plus its determiner and all its modifiers 3.
pronoun-­‐a word that replaces a noun phrase. A good way of determining the boundaries of a noun phrase is to substitute a pronoun for the noun phrase. All the words of the noun phrase are “absorbed” by the pronoun. 4.
nominal-­‐a word group (a phrase or clause) that acts like a noun phrase in a sentence. Note: Nouns and nominal answer the questions who or what. 5.
verb-­‐a word that expresses action or state of being. 6.
adjective-­‐a word that modifies, or gives information about a noun 7.
adjectival-­‐a word group (a word, phrase, or clause) that acts like an adjective in a sentence by modifying a noun. Note: Adjectivals answer the questions which one or what kind of. 8.
adverb-­‐a word that modifies, or gives information about a verb 9.
adverbial-­‐a word group (a word, phrase, or clause) that acts like an adverb in a sentence by modifying a verb Note: Adverbials answer the questions when, where, why, how, how often, and for how long. Structure Class Words The rest of the words, briefly presented below, add the “structure” to sentences; they provide the relationships between words and phrases within a sentence (sort of like the mortar in a brick wall). These “structure class” words are fewer in number and undergo the least amount of change over time. Foreign speakers can omit these words and communication can still take place. 1. determiners-­‐basically, these are a variety of word forms that “signal” that a noun will follow. 2. auxiliary verbs-­‐or helping verbs, are used to form some of the tenses, the mood, and the voice of the main verb. The mud had flowed quickly down the mountain, covering everything in its path. By the time the rain had stopped, the rescue crews were faced with the daunting task of slogging through the mud to help those who had survived. 3. qualifiers-­‐these alter the meaning of adjectives and adverbs (include words like very, quite, really, pretty, too). 4. prepositions-­‐are words that begin a prepositional phrase. The preposition is in a “pre-­‐position” to the noun phrase. Can be one word or phrasal (two or three words). A prepositional phrase is made up of a preposition plus a noun or nominal. 5. conjunctions-­‐are “connecting” words. These include coordinate, subordinate, correlative, and the conjunctive adverb. 6. interrogatives-­‐are words that introduce questions (like who, whose, which, what, why, when, where, etc.). 7. expletives-­‐are words that play no grammatical role in a sentence. They act as “operators” that allow us to manipulate the structure or a sentence. Include there, that, or, as. • Some words can have several labels, depending on what they are doing in a sentence. For example, a preposition in one sentence might be labeled a subordinate conjunction n another sentence. Sometimes a word’s function determines its form. Key Grammar Terms Phrases and Clauses Phrase: Clause: is a group of words acting together as a unit within a sentence. Does not contain a subject-­‐
predicate. A sentence is made up of phrases (such as noun phrases, verb phrases, prepositional phrases…). is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate. A clause is either independent or dependent. Independent clause (also called “main” clause): is a group of words containing a subject and predicate. Expresses a complete thought. Another name for a sentence. Dependent clause: contains a subject and predicate, but begins with a word that makes it and incomplete though; must be attached to an independent clause. There are three types of dependent clauses: 1.
subordinate clause: a dependent clause that begins with a subordinate conjunction. It functions adverbially. 2.
relative clause: a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun or adverb. It functions adjectivally. 3.
nominal clause: a clause that fills a noun function in a sentence (it acts as subject, subjective complement, direct object, or object or a preposition). Begins with an interrogative word or the expletive that. Four Types of Verbs BE verbs: Linking: a form of the verb to be that “links” the subject of the sentence to an adverb, adjective, or noun in the predicate (eight forms: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been). also “links” the subject of the sentence to an adjective or noun subjective complement. These verbs often include one of the senses: look, feel, smell, sound, taste; also appear, become, seem, get, remain. To test if a verb is linking, replace it with a be verb; if the sentence is still grammatical and makes sense, the verb is linking. (The weather became lovely [linking]. = The weather was lovely [be].) intransitive: an action verb that expresses a complete action; it takes no direct object or complement. The verb is often followed by adverbials. (The crowd laughed at the joke.) transitive: an action verb that conveys the action of the subject to a direct object (the direct object is required for grammatical completeness). (We ate the entire pizza.)