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Show what you know . . .
All sentences contain two basic elements- a
subject and a verb.
The subject answers the questions Who? or
What? before the verb.
The verb tells what the subject does, what is
done to the subject, or the subject’s
Example: Jackie runs.
A simple sentence contains 1 independent
It also contains a subject and a verb.
Example: [This book is good]
independent clause
A compound sentence consists of 2 or more
independent clauses.
Compound sentences are joined by a comma
and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS).
Example: [This book is good] , and [I will
finish it today.]
A complex sentence contains one
independent clause and one or more
subordinate clauses.
A subordinate clause contains a subject and a
verb, but cannot stand alone (example: If I
subordinate clause
Example: (If I finish this book,) [I will bring it
to you.] independent clause
A compound-complex sentence consists of 2
or more independent clauses and one or
more subordinate clause.
subordinate clause
independent clause
Example: (If I bring it to you,) [I will let you
borrow it] ,but [I am afraid of not getting it
back.] independent clause
Determine the sentence structure of the following
As soon as I got the letter, I read the instructions, and I knew
that I wanted to go.
* compound-complex
2. Have you found the map?
* simple
3. This situation is confusing, but I hope to have clarification
* compound
4. If I visit the county fair, I will buy a funnel cake.
* complex
Declarative- states an idea and ends with a period
Carrollton has a population of 24,000.
Interrogative- asks a question and ends with a
question mark
What do you expect to learn?
Imperative- gives an order or a directions;
ends with a period or an exclamation mark
Clean your room, now!
Turn to chapter 26.
Exclamatory- Conveys a strong emotion and
ends with an exclamation mark
This stinks!
A noun is a person, place, thing,
or idea. There are 4 types:
• Compound- two nouns put
together to make one
ex. football, ice age,
• Common- person, place, thing,
idea, or concept
• Proper- specific name of a noun
ex. Mrs. Atcheson,Georgia
• Collective- one word/noun to
represent a group
ex. team, flock
James Patterson is easily one of my favorite
◦ proper
A company of dancers will entertain us first.
◦ collective
The library at Carrollton Junior High will close
at 4:00 p.m.
◦ common
To do well at our game, we will need a lot of
◦ compound
A pronoun takes the place/replaces a noun.
Antecedent – word the pronoun takes the place of
in the sentence
Kinds of Pronouns
◦ Personal- refer to the person speaking, the person
spoken to, or thing spoken about
◦ Demonstrative- point out a specific noun
 this, that, these, those
◦ Relative-begins a subordinate clause
 that, which, who, whom, whose
◦ Interrogative- begins a question
 what, which, who, whom, whose
◦ Indefinite – not specific
Mr. Phillips accepted his award with dignity.
◦ 3rd person personal
That is the last piece of cake!
◦ Demonstrative
No one really knows that Mrs. Ogles has magic
◦ Indefinite
Mrs. Allen is the person who is in charge today.
◦ Relative
Who knows how old Dr. Simpson is?
◦ Interrogative
A verb shows action.
◦ Visible or mental
Linking Verbs- connects a noun or pronoun
at or near the beginning of a sentence with a
word at or near the end.
Helping Verbs- added before another verb
◦ Help create a verb phrase
She felt sick after she ate rotten bananas.
◦ linking
Her mother felt her head to see if she had a
◦ action
They had felt for splinters in the stray cat’s
◦ helping
Adjectives answer these 4 questions:
What kind? white fence
Which one? this photo
How many? two snacks
How much? enough time
 Answers
1 of 4 questions:
◦ Where? jogged here
◦ When? arrive tonight
◦ In what manner? smiled happily
◦ To what extent? hardly know
She tearfully accepted the award.
◦ tearfully
He has never asked for much help.
◦ never
My science teacher is a very friendly person.
◦ very
I jog weekly.
◦ weekly
Last Saturday, I thoroughly cleaned our bathrooms.
◦ thoroughly
We live close to the school.
◦ close
Prepositions relates the noun or pronoun
following it to another word in the sentence.
A Prepositional Phrase BEGINS with a
preposition and ENDS with an Object of
3 Types . . .
◦ Coordinating
 F A N B O Y S
 May look for comma before in some cases
◦ Correlative
◦ Subordinating
 Begins a subordinate clause (has subject and verb, but
is dependent)
 May look for comma before in some cases
She not only won first prize, but she also went on
to the regional competition.
◦ correlative
Please go to the store and then straight home.
Will Zeke or Kendall be going with us?
Whether you like it or not, you will clean your
◦ coordinating
◦ coordinating
◦ correlative
Neither Grandma nor Grandpa can drive
◦ correlative
Expresses feeling and emotion
◦ Some types of emotion that might be shown . . .
Functions independently from the rest of the
sentence and is set off from the rest of the
sentence with an exclamation mark or a comma.
Ouch! I caught my finger in the door.
◦ pain
Wow! I am so excited you are here.
◦ joy
Hey! I have told you not to do that!
◦ anger
Yuck! I don’t like that at all.
◦ dislike
Whew! I am so glad that meeting is over.
◦ relief