54. Adverbs and adverbials
... The term “adverb” refers to a specific word class or lexical category and therefore contrasts with other word classes, such as nouns, adjectives, verbs, or prepositions.
On the one hand, both adverbs and prepositions are uninflected, with adverbs differing from prepositions in having phrasal status. ...
Inner aspect and telicity
... process, and whether this process is characterized by a certain stage that determines
its end. This stage is referred to by different terms: the culmination, the termination,
the telos, etc. and predicates involving such a stage are usually called culminating,
terminating or telic processes. Involvi ...
University of Pardubice Faculty of Arts and Philosophy
... 1. Personal pronouns ...........................................................................................................6
2. Demonstrative pronouns ..................................................................................................7
3. Relative pronouns ....................... ...
The Realization and Function of Focus in Spoken English by
... corresponds to the wh-element what (taken together with happens) in the question
that the sentence answers. The sentence appearing in (4b), (6b) and (7b) is thus
potentially ambiguous with regard to its focus structure: it could answer any of the
questions in (4a), (6a) and (7a), given the right co ...
Leísta Spanish and the Syntax of Clitic Doubling
... dative and accusative clitics should receive different analyses. Dative clitics are agreement markers (a la
Sportiche 1993); accusative clitics are determiners (see Torrego 1988; Uriagereka 1988).
The questions raised by Chapter 2 are: (1) How should dative-form accusative clitics in Leísta Spanish ...
Absolute Clauses in the Literature
... construction is always nominative, or at least the subject of the English absolute
clauses is nominative; it is participle because the logical predicate is always participial. Jespersen (1937: 126) considers that the two names are both inappropriate and consequently uses the term “nexus tertiary.” T ...
Abbreviations 1 1st person 2 2nd person 3 3rd person acc
... 2.1.6 Strategies for other clausemate environments - If there are any additional reflexive
strategies known to you (from grammars, or from your linguistic knowledge), list them now.
Name each new strategy with a short name or label, and give one example.
Take a few minutes to consider other variatio ...
Subjunctive Obviation: an Interface Perspective
... bedded subjunctive verbs due to the consecutio temporum (that is, Sequence of
Tense – henceforth, SOT). Finally, do verbs inflected in the first and second person
instantiate obviation? With respect to point (b), do other subjunctive tenses instantiate obviation? With respect to (c), may phonologic ...
Why are there no reciprocal uses of German sich in PPs
... ‘Paul and Mary called each other every day at home.’
The ban on reciprocal sich in PPs is quite robust. It applies to PPs in both argument and
adjunct positions. In (3)–(5) above the PPs containing sich were arguments. The PP in (6) is
PERFECTIVITY MIGHT NOT SCOPE OVER MODALITY
... encapsulated and sent off, at the end of each phase, to the interface components for
phonological and semantic interpretation. Whichever approach one might adopt, one still
needs to state what exactly would force LF movement, i.e. one has to make additional
assumptions to explain why LF movement tak ...
Verb Movement and Constituent Permutation in Basque
... However, the use of relative frequency to determine which order is most basic
in a particular language has been criticized by many (e.g. Lehmann 1976, Dryer
1998). Moreover, it should be emphasized that linguistic constructions in which a
sentence has all its nominal arguments overtly specified are ...
Using an Ontology for Guiding Natural Language
... different modes and media. Help tools that guide the user with respect to the interface
possibilities have been incorporated.
Following this evolution, significant improvements in communication with simple
applications have been achieved. There are, however, important problems still to be solved
The distribution of pronoun case forms in English
... of pronoun case forms in Modem English and argues that the alternation between
nominative and objective pronoun forms is a surface phenomenon best captured in
a probabilistic constraint-based approach, where constraints are weighted and the
combined weight of constraint violations determines the pro ...
1. Introduction - UCL Phonetics and Linguistics
... interpretation and in their syntactic distribution. In particular, contrastive topics, just like noncontrastive topics, are interpreted as what the rest of the sentence is about and must appear in
clause-initial position. In other words, my claim is that contrastive wa-phrases in clause-initial
... is better than the other. Your student will probably let you know which
works best for him.
I think it's a good idea to correct the test with the student so mistakes are
immediately apparent. If a student answers at least 70% in each section
of the assessment (that's the Competency level) correctly, ...
Morphological recoverability in Gapping
... whether and how agreement information is used on-line in retrieving a Gapping antecedent, and in identifying
an ambiguous Gapping site, respectively, before concluding in Chapter 6.
The development of relative clauses in spontaneous child speech*
... like the ones in examples (1) to (4) (e.g., Smith 1974) or a comprehension
task in which children acted out the meaning of such sentences using toy
animals (e.g., Sheldon 1974). The errors that children produced in these
experiments (which were not always consistent across studies; cf. de Villiers
... As you have already learnt, clauses are mainly divided into
two namely independent and dependent clauses. Independent clauses
always do the same function. They convey the central idea in a
sentence. If a sentence is made up of more than one independent
clause^, all the independent clauses in it has ...
fulltext - LOT Publications
... Like most quests, mine has been a lonely one. Fortunately, there were
numerous places to rest a little and many persons have contributed to this
project by their support and encouragement. If the names of these persons are
not mentioned here, then this is for reasons of limited space only, not becau ...
A Sentential Stress Parameter? Emma Shaw
... structure, I will further limit my analysis to a discussion of stress assignment in focusneutral contexts.
The first chapter is dedicated to providing an overview of the core concerns, goals
and proposals of the Minimalist Program. Chapter 2 reviews some of the problems with
phonological accounts of ...
syntax and processing of scrambling constructions in russian
... ended with the first introductory class in sentence processing I took with her. I
am indebtfully grateful to Janet for her constant positive encouragement from
my first crude term papers to complex dissertation experiments, for endless
hours spent in linguistic discussions, for reading numerous vers ...
Writing Workbook for the New SAT
... that it takes failure to achieve success? Plan and
write an essay in which you develop your point
of view on this issue. Support your position
with reasoning and examples taken from your
reading, studies, experience, or observations.
In linguistics, Sloppy Identity is an interpretive issue involved in contexts like Verb Phrase Ellipsis where the identity of the pronoun in an elided VP (Verb Phrase) is not identical to the antecedent VP.For example, English allows VPs to be elided, as in example 1). The elided VP can be interpreted in at least two ways, namely as in (1a) or (1b) for this example.In (1a), the pronoun his refers to John in both the first and the second clause. This is done by assigning the same index to John and to both the “his” pronouns. This is called the “strict identity” reading because the elided VP is interpreted as being identical to the antecedent VP.In (1b), the pronoun his refers to John in the first clause, but the pronoun his in the second clause refers to Bob. This is done by assigning a different index to the pronoun his in the two clauses. In the first clause, pronoun his is co-indexed with John, in the second clause, pronoun his is co-indexed with Bob. This is called the “sloppy identity” reading because the elided VP is not interpreted as identical to the antecedent VP.1) John scratched his arm and Bob did too.This sentence can have a strict reading:1) a. Johni scratched hisi arm and Bobj [scratched hisi arm] too.Or a sloppy reading:1) b. Johni scratched hisi arm and Bobj [scratched hisj arm] too.