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Transcript
HISTORY
The average temperature of the Earth in general is not stable but
varies in time, as proves it the analysis of the geological coats. Our
planet was colder for example of about ten degrees 20 000 years
ago, during the peak of the last glacial period. These variations are
nevertheless very slow, the temperature fluctuated between 0,2
degrees between the year one thousand and the end of the 19th
century. The fact which worries the international community at the
moment is the acceleration of the phenomenon. So, since the end of
the 19th century, in hundred of years hardly, the average
temperature of the globe increased by 0.6 degrees. Worse, the
simulations by computer seem to indicate that the reheating is
going to accelerate and the average temperature could
consequently increase 1,4 to 5,8 degrees by the end of the 21th
century. It is this phenomenon which we call Global Warming.
KYOTO PROTOCOL
Definition:
The Kyoto protocol is an international treaty aiming at the reduction
The
Kyoto protocol
is an international
treaty
aimingof
atthe
theOutline
reduction
of greenhouse
gas emissions,
within the
framework
of
greenhouse
gas emissions,
within
the framework
Outline
agreement
of United
Nations on
the climate
change of
thethe
participating
agreement
United
Nations
the climate
change
the participating
countries ofofwhich
meet
onceon
a year
since 1995.
Signed
on December
countries
of
which
meet
once
a
year
since
1995.
Signed
on December
11th, 1997 during the 3rd annual conference of the Agreement
for
11th,
1997
during
the
3rd
annual
conference
of
the
Agreement
Kyoto, in Japan, it came into effect on February 16th, 2005 andfor
in
Kyoto,
in
Japan,
it
came
into
effect
on
February
16th,
2005
and
in
2010 was ratified by 141 countries.
2010 was ratified by 141 countries.
Numerous scientific uncertainties live when at the level of average
reheating and in its distribution following regions. An important
debate takes place at present concerning the actions to be
implemented to limit or invert the future reheating and to adapt
itself to its consequences, who are still badly defined themselves.
Most of the governments, in the important exception of the United
States, signed and ratified the Kyoto protocol which aims at reducing
greenhouse gas emissions to their level of 1990. New technological
solutions could modify radically the economy of our societies.
Consequences of global warming:
Global warming has very worrisome consequences
on the man and the environment:
What includes the cast iron of the glaciers(icecream makers), the decrease even disappearance
in certain zones of the ice(mirror,ice cream) in
the Arctic and Antarctica and thus the rise of
the sea level provoking floods of the coastal
zones, because of the increase of the
temperature of the water, the dilation of the
warm water making her(it) more voluminous than
the cold water. It provokes the disturbance even
the destruction of certain ecosystems. The
extinction of sorts(species) and the extension of
the desert. But also an increase of the infectious
diseases, which will extend northward.
More intense heat waves and strong more
frequent rains will provoke Cyclones and more
intense hurricanes, with more violent winds and
precipitation as well as floods. Water ressources
drinkable decrease and thus the peoples
undergoing the global warming migrate.
Greenhouse
• In recent years, there has been significant changes with
regard to climatic conditions and the environment. Several
scientists from various disciplines were interested in the
subject and showed that these changes are related to the
gases in our atmosphere. Several gases contribute to global
warming with carbon dioxide or CO2, CH4 or methane and
water vapor. Normally, about 28.3% of the radiation scattered
by the sun on earth is immediately sent into space by air,
white clouds and the light-colored parts of the earth. 20.7%
are absorbed by the atmosphere and 51% by the surface of
New energy
• Fight against global
warming, conservation of
natural resources and
fossil, promoting
environmentally friendly
energy … new energy are
emerging such as :
- the heater, the
Aquatherm, geothermal,
and solar Condent
Species most endangered by Global Warming
Global Climate Change Threatens A Host Of Animals Other Than Just Polar Bears.
The Emperor Penguin, which may face food shortages because of a reduction in shelf ice under which the
bird hunts for the shrimp-like krill on which it feeds.
Ringed Seals, which must shift their ranges further north in order to find ice on which to raise their
young.
The Arctic Fox, which faces competition from red foxes that are now able to expand their range into the
tundra because of global warming.
The Beluga Whale, which faces increased human intrusion into its habitat due to reduction in the ice that
previously made boat travel difficult.
The Koala Bear, which, because of the way that the increased amount of CO2 in the atmosphere affects
Eucalyptus trees, is suffering from the decreased nutritional content in the Eucalyptus leaves on which it
feeds.
The Leatherback Turtle, whose reproduction is being affected by the rising temperatures of the beach
sand in which it lays its eggs.
 Polar species are being affected by loss of ice due to global warming, according to the report. The
Ringed Seal is being forced further north as the sea ice it relies on for pup-rearing retreats. The
Emperor Penguin, highly adapted to unforgiving Antarctic conditions, faces a similar problem. Regional sea
ice, which it needs for mating, chick-rearing and moulting, is declining. Reduced ice cover also means less
krill, affecting food availability for the Emperor Penguin and many other Antarctic species.
The Arctic tundra on which the Arctic Fox depends is disappearing as warming temperatures allow new
plant species to flourish. As the habitat changes from tundra to forest, the Red Fox, which preys on the
Arctic Fox and competes with it for food, is able to move further north, reducing the Arctic Fox's
territory. The Arctic's Beluga Whale is likely to be affected by global warming both directly, through loss
of sea ice and subsequent difficulty finding prey, and indirectly, through human activity as melting sea ice
opens up previously inaccessible areas. Ship strikes, pollution and gas and oil exploration all put this highly
Human consequences
&
Some positive consequences
 Besides the increase of natural disasters, the agricultural returns could be modified and the
zones of presence of the vectors of diseases as the cholera or the malaria could widen. Numerous
populations in growth which live in tropical zones could be affected in particular by the climate
change. Other populations could be moved continuation on the way up waters.
Peoples could have their lifestyle modified as these Inuits de Kuujjuaq (the North of Canada)
among whom the mayor, Larry Watt, commanded air conditioners in June, 2006 after the
temperature had reached 31 °C !
 Already, the global warming begins to urge the governments to get to fight against a problem which
concerns them all, what in itself is rather unpublished. The global warming and the problems bound to
the energy also tend to accelerate the individual awareness and the politics of the impact of the human
activity on the environment. They incite to the development of innovative technological solutions. Other
planned more punctual consequences are:
- A lower wintry mortality in the temperate zones,
- An increase of the wooden production,
- An increase of the agricultural returns in the temperate zones,
- An increase of water ressources in certain dry areas close to tropics,
- A decline of energy consumptions to warm (but an increase of those necessary for the air
conditioning).