HISTORY The average temperature of the Earth in general is not stable but varies in time, as proves it the analysis of the geological coats. Our planet was colder for example of about ten degrees 20 000 years ago, during the peak of the last glacial period. These variations are nevertheless very slow, the temperature fluctuated between 0,2 degrees between the year one thousand and the end of the 19th century. The fact which worries the international community at the moment is the acceleration of the phenomenon. So, since the end of the 19th century, in hundred of years hardly, the average temperature of the globe increased by 0.6 degrees. Worse, the simulations by computer seem to indicate that the reheating is going to accelerate and the average temperature could consequently increase 1,4 to 5,8 degrees by the end of the 21th century. It is this phenomenon which we call Global Warming. KYOTO PROTOCOL Definition: The Kyoto protocol is an international treaty aiming at the reduction The Kyoto protocol is an international treaty aimingof atthe theOutline reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, within the framework of greenhouse gas emissions, within the framework Outline agreement of United Nations on the climate change of thethe participating agreement United Nations the climate change the participating countries ofofwhich meet onceon a year since 1995. Signed on December countries of which meet once a year since 1995. Signed on December 11th, 1997 during the 3rd annual conference of the Agreement for 11th, 1997 during the 3rd annual conference of the Agreement Kyoto, in Japan, it came into effect on February 16th, 2005 andfor in Kyoto, in Japan, it came into effect on February 16th, 2005 and in 2010 was ratified by 141 countries. 2010 was ratified by 141 countries. Numerous scientific uncertainties live when at the level of average reheating and in its distribution following regions. An important debate takes place at present concerning the actions to be implemented to limit or invert the future reheating and to adapt itself to its consequences, who are still badly defined themselves. Most of the governments, in the important exception of the United States, signed and ratified the Kyoto protocol which aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to their level of 1990. New technological solutions could modify radically the economy of our societies. Consequences of global warming: Global warming has very worrisome consequences on the man and the environment: What includes the cast iron of the glaciers(icecream makers), the decrease even disappearance in certain zones of the ice(mirror,ice cream) in the Arctic and Antarctica and thus the rise of the sea level provoking floods of the coastal zones, because of the increase of the temperature of the water, the dilation of the warm water making her(it) more voluminous than the cold water. It provokes the disturbance even the destruction of certain ecosystems. The extinction of sorts(species) and the extension of the desert. But also an increase of the infectious diseases, which will extend northward. More intense heat waves and strong more frequent rains will provoke Cyclones and more intense hurricanes, with more violent winds and precipitation as well as floods. Water ressources drinkable decrease and thus the peoples undergoing the global warming migrate. Greenhouse • In recent years, there has been significant changes with regard to climatic conditions and the environment. Several scientists from various disciplines were interested in the subject and showed that these changes are related to the gases in our atmosphere. Several gases contribute to global warming with carbon dioxide or CO2, CH4 or methane and water vapor. Normally, about 28.3% of the radiation scattered by the sun on earth is immediately sent into space by air, white clouds and the light-colored parts of the earth. 20.7% are absorbed by the atmosphere and 51% by the surface of New energy • Fight against global warming, conservation of natural resources and fossil, promoting environmentally friendly energy … new energy are emerging such as : - the heater, the Aquatherm, geothermal, and solar Condent Species most endangered by Global Warming Global Climate Change Threatens A Host Of Animals Other Than Just Polar Bears. The Emperor Penguin, which may face food shortages because of a reduction in shelf ice under which the bird hunts for the shrimp-like krill on which it feeds. Ringed Seals, which must shift their ranges further north in order to find ice on which to raise their young. The Arctic Fox, which faces competition from red foxes that are now able to expand their range into the tundra because of global warming. The Beluga Whale, which faces increased human intrusion into its habitat due to reduction in the ice that previously made boat travel difficult. The Koala Bear, which, because of the way that the increased amount of CO2 in the atmosphere affects Eucalyptus trees, is suffering from the decreased nutritional content in the Eucalyptus leaves on which it feeds. The Leatherback Turtle, whose reproduction is being affected by the rising temperatures of the beach sand in which it lays its eggs. Polar species are being affected by loss of ice due to global warming, according to the report. The Ringed Seal is being forced further north as the sea ice it relies on for pup-rearing retreats. The Emperor Penguin, highly adapted to unforgiving Antarctic conditions, faces a similar problem. Regional sea ice, which it needs for mating, chick-rearing and moulting, is declining. Reduced ice cover also means less krill, affecting food availability for the Emperor Penguin and many other Antarctic species. The Arctic tundra on which the Arctic Fox depends is disappearing as warming temperatures allow new plant species to flourish. As the habitat changes from tundra to forest, the Red Fox, which preys on the Arctic Fox and competes with it for food, is able to move further north, reducing the Arctic Fox's territory. The Arctic's Beluga Whale is likely to be affected by global warming both directly, through loss of sea ice and subsequent difficulty finding prey, and indirectly, through human activity as melting sea ice opens up previously inaccessible areas. Ship strikes, pollution and gas and oil exploration all put this highly Human consequences & Some positive consequences Besides the increase of natural disasters, the agricultural returns could be modified and the zones of presence of the vectors of diseases as the cholera or the malaria could widen. Numerous populations in growth which live in tropical zones could be affected in particular by the climate change. Other populations could be moved continuation on the way up waters. Peoples could have their lifestyle modified as these Inuits de Kuujjuaq (the North of Canada) among whom the mayor, Larry Watt, commanded air conditioners in June, 2006 after the temperature had reached 31 °C ! Already, the global warming begins to urge the governments to get to fight against a problem which concerns them all, what in itself is rather unpublished. The global warming and the problems bound to the energy also tend to accelerate the individual awareness and the politics of the impact of the human activity on the environment. They incite to the development of innovative technological solutions. Other planned more punctual consequences are: - A lower wintry mortality in the temperate zones, - An increase of the wooden production, - An increase of the agricultural returns in the temperate zones, - An increase of water ressources in certain dry areas close to tropics, - A decline of energy consumptions to warm (but an increase of those necessary for the air conditioning).