Download FFHI069H4ACB - Birkbeck, University of London

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Church of the Holy Sepulchre wikipedia , lookup

State of the Teutonic Order wikipedia , lookup

Livonian Crusade wikipedia , lookup

William of Tyre wikipedia , lookup

Battle of Arsuf wikipedia , lookup

Siege of Acre (1189–1191) wikipedia , lookup

Third Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Kingdom of Jerusalem wikipedia , lookup

Savoyard crusade wikipedia , lookup

Battle of Nicopolis wikipedia , lookup

Rhineland massacres wikipedia , lookup

History of Jerusalem during the Kingdom of Jerusalem wikipedia , lookup

Despenser's Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Fourth Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Albigensian Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Second Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Siege of Acre (1291) wikipedia , lookup

First Crusade wikipedia , lookup

Northern Crusades wikipedia , lookup

Barons' Crusade wikipedia , lookup

BIRKBECK University of London
Academic Year:
Module Title:
The Crusades
Module Code:
Subject Area:
Certificate of Higher Education
Class Venue:
Central London
Module taught by:
Michael Bloomfield M.A., Cert. Ed.
Module Description
When Pope Urban II preached the liberation of Jerusalem in 1095, he set in motion a
dynamic movement which changed the political and social fabric of both Europe and the
Middle East. Inspired crusaders made tortuous journeys to fight Muslims, defend European
settlements in the East, and protect pilgrims. From the early 13th century crusades were
fought against non-Catholics, heretics, papal enemies and pagans. This new course sets out
to examine the ideologies of crusaders, their achievements in the Holy Land, and the
outcomes of crusading warfare elsewhere.
Entry Requirements
This module is open to anyone with an interest and enthusiasm for the subject. However, all
modules are taught at university level, and students should be able to read, write and speak
English fluently to benefit from their studies.
The course aims to enable you to
a. develop historical skills in relation to the study of the crusades (including critical
understanding of current issues and problems, debates and theories, facilities and materials,
in relation to crusading history);
b. consolidate your learning through discussion in class and coursework;
c. develop your aptitude for study and research, as well as your communication skills, both
oral and written;
d. evaluate critically a selection of both primary and secondary source material relating to the
history of the Crusades from the late 11th to the 13th century.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the module you should:
a. have strengthened your understanding of the issues, problems and debates in crusading
b. have acquired new perspectives on crusading history;
c. be able to describe, analyse, evaluate and discuss your newly acquired knowledge and
d. have developed skills in discussion, research, and communication (both orally and in
e. have extended your capacity for critical analysis and reflection;
f. have completed, and been assessed on, your course work.
Teaching and Learning
Whilst the sessions involve the tutor leading in with an illustrated talk or lecture, the teaching
remains varied and interactive, appropriate to the topics being studied. It includes some
practical approaches, problem-solving, lectures, group work, discussion, and, where
appropriate, student presentations.
Course Content
There is a vast, and increasing, literature available to us about the Crusades. The course
seeks to promote an active interest in an understanding of what the Crusades were, how the
movement originated, was promulgated and developed. We consider the nature of ‘jihad’
and the Islamic responses to the Crusades. We assess the reasons for the seeming success
of the First Crusade, and the ultimate failure of the westerners to hold on to ‘the land
oversea’. We examine the impact of pilgrims and crusaders on the people and environment
of the Near East. Towards the end of the course we examine further the application of
crusading to other ecclesiastical and political issues than those in the Middle East,
exemplified in the Albigensian and Northern Crusades.
Sources and Skills
Throughout the course considerable use is made of primary sources: letters, a variety of
documents and works of literature, artefacts, architecture and archaeological research. The
skills historians need to utilise and interpret their sources are introduced and students are
encouraged to acquire proficiency in their use: note-taking, planning and composing
coursework, reading rapidly and critically, researching and information-gathering.
Week 1: To what extent was Jerusalem a City of Prodigious Hope?
In this first session we look at the location of Jerusalem, its history and importance in both in
its region, and the wider worlds of both Christendom and Islam. We examine the City’s
significance in the religious and cultural experience of Jews, Christians and Muslims in the
Middle Ages. Many pilgrims and travellers were avid collectors of relics and souvenirs: their
enthusiasm and naivety sometimes caused problems for theologians and custodians alike!
Required Reading
Asali, K.J. (ed.): Jerusalem in History, Scorpion Publishing, 1989, pages 75-129.
Hamilton, B.: Religion in the Medieval West, E. Arnold, 1986: pages 126-8.
Recommended Reading
Armstrong, K.: History of Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths, Harper Collins, 2005
Howard, D.R.: Writers and Pilgrims: Medieval Pilgrimage Narratives and their
Posterity, California, 1971.
Kedar, B.Z.: Crusade and Mission: European Approaches towards Muslims, New Jersey,
rep. 1988.
Labarge, W. Wade: Medieval Travellers: the Rich and Restless, 1982.
Montefiore, S. Sebag: Jerusalem: The Biography, W&N, 2011.
Sox, D.: Relics and Shrines, Allen and Unwin, 1985.
Sumption, J.: Pilgrimage: an image of medieval religion, 1970.
Sumption, J.: The Age of Pilgrimage: The Medieval Journey to God, Hidden Spring, 2003.
Sumption, J.: Pilgrimage, Faber and Faber, 2002.
Touati, H.: Islam and Travel in the Middle Ages, Chicago, 2010.
Assessment Opportunities
Account for the attraction of Jerusalem as a pilgrimage centre in the medieval period.
To what extent is it possible to reconstruct the experience of pilgrimage to the Holy Land in
the Middle Ages?
What part did holy men/women play in medieval society?
Assess the importance of relics in the development of the Church in the Middle Ages.
Compare and contrast the significance of EITHER relics OR pilgrimage in the experience of
Christians and Muslims during the medieval period.
Week 2: To what extent was the Islamic world divided in the late 11th century?
In this session we examine the attraction of Islam, its expansion, and the impact of its
divisions in the Near East. In what ways did the coming of the Turks change the balance of
power in the region? How were these issues viewed in Byzantium and the West? We
discuss the significance to the West of the changing cultural and political milieu in the Near
Required Reading
Holt, P.M.: The Age of the Crusades, Longman, 1986, pages 1-15.
Kennedy, H.: The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates, Longman, 1991: pages 1-49.
Recommended Reading
Armstrong, K.: Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Phoenix, 2001.
Broadhurst, R., trans.: The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, Goodword, 2001.
Hillenbrand, C.: The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, Edinburgh, 1999.
Hitti, P., trans.: An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the Crusades,
Columbia, 2000.
Hourani, A.: A History of the Arab Peoples, Faber, 1991.
The Koran: suggested translation: N.J. Dawood, Penguin, 1974.
Assessment Opportunities
To what extent was Islamic world politically fragmented in the late 11th and early 12th
Assess the importance of the division between the Sunni and Shi’i sects in the medieval
world of Islam.
What impact did the First Crusaders have on Islamic society in the Near East?
Week 3: Why did Pope Urban II initiate the crusading movement?
Pope Urban II preached a dynamic sermon, set to change the medieval world. We examine
the immediate impact of the sermon and the response of the Franks and others to the pope’s
call to arms. We also discuss what ‘taking the Cross’ entailed: who was encouraged to do
this and who was not? We discuss why people were prepared to take up arms in the Name
of Christ and the extent to which this was a novel concept in 1095.
Required Reading
Peters, E. (Ed.): The First Crusade: the Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other Source
Materials, Pennsylvania, 2nd. ed. 1998: versions of Urban II’s speech: pages 2-16.
Recommended Reading
Deansley, M.: A History of the Medieval Church, Methuen, 1973.
France, J.: Victory in the East, Cambridge, 1994.
Holt, P.M.: The Age of the Crusades, Longman, 1986.
Mayer, H. Eberhard: The Crusades, Oxford, 1988.
Runciman, S.: A History of the Crusades, 3 vols., Penguin 1990-1.
Riley-Smith, J.: the Crusades: A Short History, London, 1987.
The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, London, 1986.
The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, Oxford, 1995.
An Atlas of the Crusades, London, 1990.
Southern, R.W.: Western Society and the Church in the Middle Ages, Penguin, 1990.
Ullmann, W.: A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages, Methuen, 1974.
Assessment Opportunities
To what extent was the First Crusade the ‘brainchild’ of Pope Urban II?
How far were social and economic conditions in western Europe the driving force behind the
response to the preaching of the First Crusade?
What was entailed in ‘taking the Cross’?
Week 4: By what means was Victory in the East achieved?
The military men of the First Crusade achieved a considerable victory at Jerusalem in July,
1099, following a harrowing and very memorable journey. We discuss the nature of the
achievement. Having captured Jerusalem and other Near Eastern territories, writers of the
period described and explained what they thought had been achieved. To what extent can
we agree with contemporary views about the victory and the reasons for the crusaders’
Required Reading
Edgington, S.: The First Crusade: Historical Association booklet, 1996.
Recommended Reading
Asbridge, T.: The First Crusade, A New History, The Free Press, 2004.
The Crusades, The War for the Holy Land, Pocket Books, 2010.
Bachrach, B.S. and D.S.: The ‘Gesta Tancredi’ of Ralph of Caen, Ashgate, 2010.
France, J.: Victory in the East, Cambridge, 1994.
Mayer, H. Eberhard: The Crusades, Oxford, 1988.
Riley-Smith, J.: the Crusades: A Short History, London, 1987.
The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading, London, 1986.
The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, Oxford, 1995.
An Atlas of the Crusades, London, 1990.
Runciman, S.: A History of the Crusades, 3 vols., Penguin 1990-1.
Sweetenham, C.: Robert the Monk’s History of the First Crusade, Ashgate, 2006.
Assessment Opportunities
Examine the reasons for the ‘Victory in the East’ in 1099.
Assess the importance of EITHER Bohemond OR Baldwin of Boulogne in the achievement
of the First Crusaders.
What is the historical value of EITHER the ‘Gesta Tancredi’ of Ralph of Caen OR Robert the
Monk’s ‘History of the First Crusade’.
Week 5: By what means was the ‘Victory in the East’ consolidated?
Once victory had been achieved at Jerusalem and elsewhere, the crusaders turned to the
consolidation of their conquest. The land and its inhabitants were subjected to new rulers,
lords, and customs. We discuss the arrangements made and the way in which existing
customs continued to exert an influence. From the summer of 1099 pilgrims began to arrive
in greater numbers: some intent on settling. Many crusaders returned home. In due course
there was an Islamic response to the Christian occupation and to counter this, new crusades
were called, not least the so-called Second Crusade.
Required Reading
Prawer, J.: The Crusaders’ Kingdom, chapter 5: The Conquered Lands and their People.
Recommended Reading
Edbury, P. and John Rowe: William of Tyre, Cambridge, 1990.
Usamah Ibn-Munquidh: An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior in the Period of the
Crusades, trans. by P. Hitti, Columbia, 2000.
Gabrieli, F.: Arab Historians of the Crusades, California, 1984.
Hillenbrand, C.: The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, Edinburgh, 1999.
Holt, P.M.: The Age of the Crusades, Longman, 1986.
Lawrence, T.E.: Crusader Castles, Folio, 2010.
Otto of Freising: Gesta Friderici I Imperatoris. The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, ed. and
transl. C. C. Mierow. Columbia, 1953.
Phillips, J.: The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom, Yale, 2007.
Phillips, J. and M. Hoch, eds.: The Second Crusade: Scope and Consequences,
Manchester, 2001
Prawer, J.: The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Oxford, 1988.
Riley-Smith, J., ed.: The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, Oxford, 1995.
Riley-Smith, J.: An Atlas of the Crusades, London, 1990.
Kenneth M. Setton (Ed.): A History of the Crusades, vol. 4: The Art and Architecture of the
Crusader States, Wisconsin, 1977.
Assessment Opportunities
By what means was the ‘Victory in the East’ consolidated?
Explain the function of castles and stronghold in the crusaders’ Kingdom.
To what extent was Crusader art and architecture distinct from that of contemporary France?
‘The Second Crusade was a complete failure.’ Discuss.
How far was the Kingdom of Jerusalem self-sufficient?
Assess the importance of Crusader Syria in the commerce of Europe with the Levant.
Of what value to historians is the autobiography of Usamah Ibn-Munquidh?
How much power and status did women have in 12th century Kingdom of Jerusalem?
Week 6: What were the Military Orders and what needs did they serve?
The Military Orders were a new kind of religious organisation. The Knights Templar and the
Hospitallers were the most famous, but there were others. All played a major role in the
defence of the land and the pilgrims. We discuss their origins and the reasons for their
eventual decline. The creation of the military orders was a genuinely original development.
On the whole the crusaders tried to replicate the institutions and manner of life with which
they were familiar in the west.
Required Reading
Riley-Smith, J., ed.: An Atlas of the Crusades, London, 1990, pages 52-3.
Recommended Reading
Barber, M.: The Trial of the Templars, 2nd ed. Cambridge, 2006.
Barber, M.: The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple, Cambridge, 1994.
Marshall, C.: Warfare in the Latin East, 1192-1291, Cambridge, 1992.
Nicholson, H.: Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights: Images of the Military Orders,
1128-1291, Leicester, 1993.
Read, P.P.: The Templars, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1999.
Seward, D.: The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders, London, 1972.
Smail, R.C.: Crusading Warfare, 2nd edn., intr. C. Marshall, Cambridge, 1995.
Riley-Smith, J.: The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades, Oxford, 1995.
Riley-Smith, J.: Hospitallers: The History of the Order of St. John, Hambledon, London,
Riley-Smith, J.: The Knights of St. John in Jerusalem and Cyprus c. 1050-1310, London,
Assessment Opportunities
What were the military orders and what needs did they serve?
By what means was the Latin East defended?
What part did the military orders play in the defence of the Latin East?
To what extent was contemporary criticism of the military orders unjustified?
Week 7: The Third Crusade: Richard, Philip, Saladin and Frederick Barbarossa.
On 4th July, 1187, a great crusader army became stranded on the Horns of Hattin, as the
heights above the north-western side of the Sea of Galilee were called. There they were
devastatingly defeated. How had this come about? Could the situation be remedied? The
kings of Europe set out to rescue the Holy Land. We examine and discuss the reasons for
their partial success, but failure to regain Jerusalem. To what extent were the major
participants in the campaigns of the Third Crusade heroes?
Required Reading
Smail, R.C.: Crusading Warfare, 2nd ed., intr. C. Marshall, Cambridge, 1995: chapter VI,
‘The Latin Field Army in Action’, section V.
Recommended Reading
Edbury, P., and William of Tyre: The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade,
Ashgate, 1998.
Gillingham, J.B.: Richard the Lionheart, 2nd ed., London, 1989.
Kedar, B.Z., ed.: The Horns of Hattin, London, 1992.
Nelson, J.L., ed.: Richard Coeur de Lion in History and Myth, London, 1992.
Nicholson, H.J.: The Chronicle of the Third Crusade: A Translation of the ‘Itinerarium
Peregrinorum Et Gesta Regis Ricardi’ (Crusade texts in Translation), Ashgate, 2001.
Nicolle, D.: The Third Crusade: Richard the Lionheart and the Struggle for Jerusalem,
Osprey, 2005.
Reston, J.: Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, Faber
and Faber, 2002.
Benjamin Z. Kedar (ed.): The Horns of Hattin, London, 1992.
Assessment Opportunities
To what extent was the Battle of Hattin an unmitigated disaster?
Richard or Saladin: who most deserved the chivalric crown?
To what extent were the major participants in the campaigns of the Third Crusade heroes?
Assess the impact of Frederick Barbarossa’s death in 1190 on the progress of the Third
Week 8: Against Byzantium: The Fourth Crusade
By the early 13th century the Church was faced with a number of major issues: heresy was
on the rise; there were strident demands to extend the scope of Christendom; and not least,
calls to continue the campaigns in the east. In this session we examine the so-called Fourth
Crusade, which was originally planned to enter the Holy Land via Egypt. Instead it was
diverted to Constantinople, where it devastated the city and enabled Latin rulers to dominate
what remained of the eastern empire for nearly sixty years.
Required Reading
Riley-Smith, J.: Atlas of the Crusades, pages 76-7; 84-5
Godfrey, J.: The Unholy Crusade, Oxford, 1980.
Recommended Reading
Angold, M.: The Fourth Crusade, Longman, 2003.
Queller, D.E.: The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople 1201-1204.
Sayers, J.: Innocent III: Leader of Europe, 1198-1216, Longman, 1993.
Smith, C.: ed. and trans.: Chronicles of the Crusades (Villehardouin and Jean de Joinville),
Penguin Classics, 2008.
Essays and Projects
Where did the Fourth Crusade go wrong?
To what extent was the Fourth Crusade ‘unholy’?
Week 9: The Albigensian Crusade
The Cathars of southern France were a sect judged heretical and dangerous by the Roman
Church. In this session we discuss the Cathars, their origins, beliefs and way of life. We
investigate the reasons for the Roman Church taking such a hard and determined line
against the Cathars, undertaking to eradicate their movement. To what extent was the
crusade against the Cathars inspired as much by political as religious objectives?
Required Reading
Hamilton, B.: The Albigensian Crusade, Historical Association booklet, 1974.
Recommended Reading
Sayers, J.: Innocent III: Leader of Europe, 1198-1216.
Roquebert, M.: L’Epopee Cathare, 3 vols., 1970-86.
Shirley, J., ed. and trans.: Bernard Gui: The Inquisitor’s Guide: A Medieval Manual on
Heretics, Ravenhall, 2006
Sumption, J.: The Albigensian Crusade, Faber and Faber, 1978.
Wakefield, W. and A.P. Evans: Heresies of the High Middle Ages, Columbia, 1991
Assessment Opportunities
Account for the Albigensian Crusade.
To what extent was St. Dominic’s campaign successful?
Week 10: The Northern Crusades
The Northern Crusades are sometimes known as the Baltic Crusades. These religious
military campaigns were undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark, Sweden, the
German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their various allies, against the largely
pagan peoples of northern Europe who lived along the eastern and southern shores of the
Baltic Sea. Some of the wars fought in this area were understood to be crusades during the
medieval period but others were only recognised as such in modern times. The lands to the
east of the Baltic Sea were completely transformed by the crusading forces: the peoples
affected include the Livs, Latgallians, Estonians, Semigallians, Curonians, Prussians and the
Adam of Bremen, trans. F.J. Tschan, Columbia, 2002.
Brudage, J., trans.: The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, Columbia, 2004.
Christiansen, E.: The Northern Crusades, Penguin, 1997.
Gimbutas, M.: The Balts, London, 1963.
The Slavs, London, 1971.
“The Lithuanian God Velnias”, in G.J. Larson, Myth in Indo-European Antiquity, Berkeley,
Jedlicki, M.Z., ed. and trans.: Thietmar of Merseberg: Chronicon, Poznan, 1953.
Nicolle, D., Turner, G.: Teutonic Knight, Osprey, 2007.
Turnbull, S.: Tannenberg, 1410: Disaster for the Teutonic Knights, Osprey, 2003.
Assessment Opportunities
Assess the importance of Henry of Livonia’s Chronicle in understanding the Baltic Crusades.
What impact did the Northern Crusades have on the economic development of the Baltic
region during the medieval period?
To what extent should the Northern Crusades be regarded as crusades at all?
Coursework and assessment
There are a variety of assessment options for the module. Suggestions have been made for
each session: these may be explored in a variety of ways, not necessarily along the lines of
the traditional essay. For example, writing a review or report on a book you have read or an
exhibition visited can be very helpful in consolidating your understanding. There are also oral
and other forms of assessment which are available to you. Doing course work and taking
part in assessment will help you to develop your understanding of the subject and develop
your skills of historical analysis and interpretation. Students should have attended at least
50% of the meetings in order to qualify for assessment.
Library and study skills resources
You may find the following web links helpful for your studies.
 For information on the resources available for history students through Birkbeck
College Library, including on-line books, reference works, journals, catalogues, and
search tools go to: . Please note
for Certificate and Diploma students some of the access schemes shown on these
pages are only available to degree students for further information please refer to
Aubrey Greenwood, History Subject Librarian.
 For guidance on study skills, including essay and report writing, research and
referencing, go to
For specific guidance for historians and history students on getting the best out of the
internet go to
Course Evaluation
During the course students will be asked to complete an evaluation form which gives the
opportunity to provide feedback on all aspects of their learning experience.
Further Information
For further information on issues such as student support, plagiarism and procedural
guidelines, please consult the History and Archaeology Student Handbook available on