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• Arrhythmia Treatment …which you
• Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
• Angioplasty
• Valve Replacement
• Aneurysm Repair
• Transplant
• Coronary Artery Disease
–Result of plaque buildup in your
coronary arteries that leads to
–Hardening of arteries from plaque is
called Atherosclerosis
• It occurs when fat,
cholesterol, and other
substances build up in
the walls of arteries
and form hard
structures called
– Narrows the diameter
of the arteries,
reducing blood flow.
• Plaques harden or can rupture
– If the plaque ruptures it creates a blood clot on
the surface which will completely block the artery
• Symptom of plaques: Angina (chest pain or discomfort
that occurs if an area of your heart muscle doesn't get
enough oxygen-rich blood)
• A healthy artery or vein from the body is
connected, or grafted, to the blocked coronary
– The grafted artery or vein goes around the
blocked portion of the coronary artery
– Creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood to flow
to the heart muscle
• Alternative to bypass;
attempts to open a
blockage rather than bypass
– Thin, flexible tube with a
balloon at its tip is threaded
through a blood vessel to
the narrow or blocked
coronary artery
– Once in place, the balloon is
inflated to push the plaque
against the artery wall
– This restores blood flow
through the artery
• A stent might be
placed in the coronary
artery to help keep it
open. A stent is a small
mesh tube that
supports the inner
artery wall.
• For the heart to work well, blood must flow in
only one direction.
• Each valve has a set of flaps called leaflets
– The leaflets open to allow blood to pass from one
heart chamber into another or into the arteries.
– The leaflets close tightly to stop blood from
flowing backward.
• Leaflets can thick or
stiff or fuse together,
keeping blood from
flowing through the
• Leaflets may not close
tightly enough causing
blood to leak back into
the heart chambers
• Surgeons will either
repair the valve or
replace it:
– Pig, cow, human
– Man-made valve
• An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in the wall
of an artery or the heart muscle.
• When the size of an aneurysm increases, there
is a significant risk of rupture, resulting in
severe hemorrhage, other complications or
• A stent graft is inserted through an artery in
the groin.
• The stent graft makes a bridge between the
healthy parts of the aorta (above and below
the aneurysm)
• Surgery to remove a person's diseased heart
and replace it with a healthy heart from a
deceased donor
• Remedies before a heart is found:
– Ventricular assist devices (VADs) is a mechanical
– Total artificial hearts (TAHs) is a device that
replaces the two ventricles
Both ventricles of the heart are
failing to pump enough blood to
sustain the body (end-stage
biventricular failure).
The left and right failing
ventricles are removed.
The four native heart valves are
The Total Artificial Heart is
implanted and attached via four
quick connects.
Hopefully, a donor heart is
transplanted in the near future!
• Read the article, “Searching For a Substitute”
to examine the history of heart transplants.
– Then answer the 10 questions that accompany it.
• You will be assigned to one of three categories:
– Those representing the doctors and scientists involved
in transplantation,
– Those patients who are waiting for donor hearts and
dying of heart disease,
– The general public.
• Consider the issue of heart transplants, and for
next pull-out, put together your official stance on
the issue as if you were a doctor, a patient, or a
member of the general public!
• Test your knowledge of the human
heart…what do you remember?