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Transcript
Cardiovascular
Disease
Cardiovascular Disease

Diseases of the heart and blood vessel system
Heart disease is #1 killer in the United States, stroke #4
(CDC)
 Washington State (CDC)



Cardiovascular disease also contributes to mortality
across the globe (NationMaster.com)
WHO: the burden of heart disease and stroke
Cardiovascular Disease


Many different terms
Conditions are frequently
related
Hypertension

A measure of the force blood
exerts against the walls of
arteries
Systole - pressure when
heart contracts
 Diastole - pressure when
heart relaxes




What is blood pressure?
Blood pressure assessment
“Hypertension” = “high blood
pressure”
Why Does Hypertension Matter?




Hypertension damages
inner lining of artery
Artery bleeds
Injured area clots, can
accumulate “plaque”
Animation
Atherosclerosis




Plaque buildup within an artery or arteries
A normal artery allows room for blood to flow
An atherosclerotic artery has plaque buildup as a result of
damage to the blood vessel
An artery becomes damaged
High blood pressure
 Smoking


Vessel bleeds, forms clot, accumulates plaque

Calcium, fibrin, cholesterol
Thrombus and Embolus



When a blood clot or other foreign body in a
blood vessel (thrombus) prevents blood delivery,
the human tissue needing the blood delivery can
be damaged
When a blood clot or piece of plaque breaks off of
its origin and travels through the blood vessel
system (embolus), human tissue can be damaged
Can occur in arteries and veins
Coronary Artery Disease,
Myocardial Infarction


When atherosclerosis
occurs in the coronary
arteries supplying blood
to the heart, the condition
is labeled coronary artery
disease (CAD)
CAD can cause a
myocardial infarction
(heart attack; through
1:37)
Coronary Artery Disease,
Myocardial Infarction



Coronary artery occlusion
Myocardial infarction
Coronary artery plaque may not completely halt
blood flow but instead reduce it: ischemia


Blood flow reduction to body’s tissues
Angina (chest pain or pressure) may result when
ischemia occurs in the heart
Stroke

When a blockage occurs in the brain, reduced
blood flow can cause an ischemic stroke


A stroke may also be caused from bleeding
Stroke animation (YouTube)
Arrhythmia

Normal rhythm = sinus rhythm




SA node, AV node, bundle branches
Too fast = tachycardia
Too slow = bradycardia
Irregular heartbeat
Variation from normal sinus rhythm
 Supraventricular tachycardia
 Atrial fibrillation


Instead of single impulse in the SA node, can be >400bpm
Ventricular tachycardia
 Ventricular fibrillation

Cardiac Arrest





Different from myocardial infarction
An electrical event
Usually due to underlying heart disease
Heart stops due to ventricular fibrillation
CPR can help blood flow, but defibrillation
needed to restart heart