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Non-Infectious Disease
 Noninfectious Diseases:
 Cannot be transmitted by contact with a person, object, animal
or substance. Not communicable or contagious, rather non
infectious diseases are caused by risk factors that may be
environmental, behavioral, or hereditary.
Disease Notes
• Cardiovascular Diseases:
 Atherosclerosis - cholesterol and plaque narrow or block the arteries
Disease Notes
Cardiovascular disease
 Arteriosclerosis - hardening of the arteries
 Angina Pectoris - chest pain, occurs when the coronary
arteries become blocked
Disease Notes
 Heart Attack - heart muscle dies due to lack of
blood supply and oxygen
Arrhythmia - irregular heartbeat
Fibrillation - life-threatening condition in which the heart twitches
but doesn’t pump blood normally
• Stroke:
Supply of blood to the brain is disrupted
Brain cells die from lack of oxygen
Cerebral hemorrhage - bleeding in the brain from an artery in
the cerebrum (main portion of the brain)
Aneurysm - blood-filled weak spot that balloons out from the
artery wall
Disease Notes
 Treatment for Cardiovascular Disease:
 Coronary bypass surgery - construction of a detour
around a blocked coronary artery
 Balloon angioplasty - balloon is inserted in an artery
and expanded to open a blockage
Cardiovascular disease
• Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease:
Do not start smoking
Exercise regularly
Eat a proper diet
Avoid obesity
Control blood pressure
Avoid bacterial infections
Disease Notes
• Cancer:
 Rapid, uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells
• Cancer Types:
 Malignant tumor - tumor grows out into and
destroys surrounding tissues
 Benign tumor - cells remain within the
membrane and do not spread
Disease Notes
 Cancer Treatments:
 Radiation therapy - high energy radiation used to kill cancer cells
 Chemotherapy - drugs that attack cancers, reduces the rate at
which cancer cells reproduce
 Immunotherapy - drugs used to stimulate the body’s own immune
system to attack cancer cells
Disease Notes
 Diabetes:
 Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or
insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which
the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed
to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.
Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulindependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the
way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's
main source of fuel.
• Arthritis:
Irritation or inflammation of the joints
Osteoarthritis - caused by wear and tear on the joints
Rheumatoid - membrane surrounding a joint becomes