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Warm Up
When you die, what
do you want people to
remember about you?
ACT/SAT Word of the day: advocacy (n.) The
act of pleading a cause.
Ex. The girl did a lot of advocacy work for
Autistic children in college
• SWBAT Explain the fall of Greece and the
importance of Alexander the Great!
Rise of Macedonia, Video
• Peloponnesian War weakens Greek city states,
militarily and economically.
• Macedonians, a people from the North invade
and conquer Greece (Phillip II)
• City States keep local government but lose
Independence. Greek culture stays.
The Rise of Alexander, Video
• Phillip II, Alexander’s father, planned to invade
Persia, but is assassinated.
• Wanted to carry out his father’s dream. He
invaded Persia in 334 BC
• Eight years later, Alexander’s armies had
conquered all of Egypt, Palestine, Persia, and all
the way to India.
Alexander’s Empire
• As Alexander conquered an area, he would borrow
the customs that he liked from each area.
• Took a Persian wife and adopted Persian dress.
• This blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and
Indian cultures became known as
Hellenistic Culture.
• Today, Greece still calls itself the “Hellenic
Did ya get it!?
• Complete the entrance quiz silently.
• SWBAT Evaluate the inequality in the Roman
Republic by comparing to the US.
Rome traced its origins back to 2 twin brothers named Romulus
and Remus, descendants of a Trojan hero named Aeneas who had
fled to Italy after the Trojan War. As babies, the boys were placed
in a basket and set adrift in the Tiber River at the order of their
great uncle. According to the legend, the basket washed ashore
and was found by a world who cared for the boys. Eventually, the
boys were discovered by a kind shepherd who adopted them as
his own sons.
When the boys grew up, they decided to build a city on the Tiber
where they had been saved. The brothers fought about the exact
location for the city. Eventually, Romulus won the argument and
began to sketch out plans for the city’s layout. Irritated that he
had been overruled, Remus mocked his brother’s plans. Enraged,
Romulus attacked and killed Remus. He then built the city they
had planned, which he named Rome, after himself. He made
himself Rome’s king and ruled nearly 40 years. In time the humble
city of Romulus grew into a major power.
•Built by Indo-European tribe known as the
•Grew into a prosperous city
•One reason because of its location
Located on the Tiber River, major trade route in Italy
republic is a form of government where
people elect representatives.
might have had a representative
government, but not all people were
•Roman women were not allowed to vote
•Plebeians were not allowed to vote
What’s a plebian?
Patricians and Plebeians
•Members of the aristocrat
•Controlled every aspect of
•Common people
•Challenged patricians for
•Refused to defend Rome
when enemies invaded and
•Realizing that Rome would
be defeated, patricians
decided to give them more
You are a Patrician or a Plebian
A situation will come to you and your
group, have one person lead the
discussion and a second person be
the scribe.
Decide what your group is going to
do in each situation.
Patricians & Plebeians
Blacks & Whites
Plebeians had no say in
political life
African Americans lived for
many years without equal
Plebeians fought to
defend Rome, after
African Americans fought in
refusing to fight until they every war from the American
were granted rights
Revolution to Vietnam before
they were granted equal rights
Muhammad Ali
Should people without equal rights serve their country or refuse to fight? Why?
Caesar Takes Control
•Military leader Julius Caesar is elected leader
•Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey form a triumvirate—a
group of three leaders.
•Military victories give Caesar increasing popularity and
•Caesar is named dictator in 44 B.C.
•Caesar makes reforms:
grants wider citizenship
creates jobs for the poor
•Group of senators opposes Caesar and murders
him on March 15, 44 B.C.
•Gap between rich and poor widens
•Farmers and former soldiers lose estates and
become homeless.
•Military becomes less disciplined and disloyal
•43 B.C. Caesar’s supporters take control; become Second
Triumvirate which was:
Octavian (Caesar’s nephew)
Mark Antony (Caesar’s most trusted general)
Lepidus (High Priest)
•Second Triumvirate ends in jealousy and violence
•Octavian accepts title of Augustus, “exalted one,” and
rules Rome.
•Rome goes from an republic with people voting to an
empire where the leader controls everything
Romana (Roman Peace)
•Under Augustus, Rome moves from a republic to an
•Rome enjoys 200 years of PEACE and PROSPERITY
known as Pax Romana
was the leader of the Roman
•Who was the leader of the Roman EMPIRE?
•What is the difference between a REPUBLIC
and an EMPIRE?
and Trade
•Agriculture is the most important industry in the
•Common coin, denarius, makes trade within
empire easier
•Rome has a vast trading network which includes
China and India.
•Network of Roman roads links the empire to
Persia and Russia.
and Captivity
•Slavery is a significant part of Roman life in both
cities and farms.
•Some slaves become gladiators; forced to fight to
the death.
•Early Romans honored guardian spirits and gods
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.
•Worship of emperor becomes part of official
religion of Rome.
•Eventually switches to Christianity when
Constantine makes it the official religion
and Culture
•Rich live well; most people are poor, receive grain
from government.
•150 holidays and Colosseum events were created
to control the masses and entertainment .
built great roads to travel on
•Aqueducts to bring water into the city
•Rome also built great stadiums and
amphitheaters for the entertainment of the
•Romans also developed the use of the arch.
Put information from today in a S.P.R.I.T.E.