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Transcript
Scientific Method
•
•
•
•
•
•
1st –make observations
2nd – ask questions
3rd – come up with possible explanations
4th – perform your experiment
5th – analyze your data
6th – make conclusions
HYPOTHESIS STATEMENT
• IT IS WRITTEN IN AN IF….AND…THEN….
FORMAT.
– IF = HYPOTHESIS
– AND= HOW YOU WILL TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS
– THEN= EXPECTED OR PREDICTED
RESULTS.
• OR IF….THEN…BECAUSE….
– IF = HOW YOU WILL TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS
– THEN= EXPECTED OR PREDICTED RESULTS
– BECAUSE= HYPOTHESIS
IF…THIS IS TRUE
AND..WE DO THIS
THEN…THIS IS WHAT WILL HAPPEN
WHAT VARIABLES ARE
INVOVLED IN AN
EXPERIMENT?
•
•
•
•
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
CONTROLLED VARIABLES (CONSTANTS)
IN A CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT YOU
HAVE A CONTROL GROUP AND AN
EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
• THE VARIABLE THAT IS BEING
CHANGED OR MANIPULATED
DEPENDENT VARIABLE
• THE RESPONDING VARIABLE; OR THE
EFFECT.
CONTROLLED VARIABLES
OR CONSTANTS
• ALL VARIABLES THAT REMAIN THE
SAME THROUGHOUT THE
EXPERIMENT.
A group that is identical to the
experimental group in every way, except
the control group is not exposed to the
independent variable, so you can compare
the groups.
Pure Science
vs.
Applied Science
APPLIED SCIENCE
•DOING RESEARCH TO MAKE DISCOVERIES
THAT WILL HAVE AN IMMEDIATE EFFECT
IN PEOPLE’S LIVES.
•FOR EX: SCIENTISTS STUDYING THE
STRUCTURE OF THE AIDS VIRUS OR
THE “BIRD FLU” VIRUS ARE
CONTRIBUTING TO EFFORTS TO MAKE
VACCINES.
PURE SCIENCE
•DOING RESEARCH SIMPLY
BECAUSE THEY ARE CURIOUS
ABOUT HOW THE NATURAL
WORLD WORKS.
•EX: THE “STRING THEORY”= POSES
THAT THE UNIVERSE IS MADE UP
OF 10 OR EVEN 26 DIMENSIONS.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
AND
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
EUKARYOTE CELL
PROKARYOTE
CELL
WHAT’S THE
DIFFERENCE??
• PROKARYOTIC CELLS:
– ARE SMALLER
– HAVE NO MEMBRANE AROUND ORGANELLES
(SUCH AS THE NUCLEUS)
– HAVE FEWER ORGANELLES
– LACKS A NUCLEOLUS
– USUSALLY HAS ONE CIRCULAR CHROMOSOME
CONTAINING DNA.
– REPRODUCE BY THE PROCESS OF BINARY
FISSION
– EXAMPLE: BACTERIA
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
•ARE BIGGER
•HAVE MEMBRANES AROUND
THEIR ORGANELLES
•CONTAINS A NUCLEUS
•HAVE MORE CHROMOSOMES
•HAVE MORE ORGANELLES
•REPRODUCE BY THE PROCESS OF
MITOSIS & MEIOSIS
•EXAMPLES: ANIMAL & PLANT
CELLS; FUNGI AND PROTISTS
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS
• PLANT CELLS:
– HAVE
CHLOROPLASTS
– HAVE A CELL WALL
– LARGE VACUOLE
– NO CENTRIOLES
• ANIMAL CELLS:
–
–
–
–
NO CHLOROPLAST
NO CELL WALL
SMALL VACUOLES
HAVE CENTRIOLES
NUCLEUS
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (E.R)
VACUOLE
CHROMOSOMES
CELL MEMBRANE
NUCLEAR ENEVLOPE
LYSOSOME
GOLGI BODIES
CYTOPLASM
CENTRIOLES
MITOCHONDRIA
SMOOTH
ENDOPLASMIC
RETICULUM (E.R.)
Cell Wall
Cell
Membrane
Vacuole
Nucleus
Nuclear
Envelope
Cytoplasm
Lysosome
Chromosome
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Chloroplast
Mitochondria
Golgi Bodies
TYPES OF MOVEMENT IN &
OUT OF A CELL
• PASSIVE TRANSPORT
-DIFFUSION
-OSMOSIS
-FACILITATED DIFFUSION
• ACTIVE TRANSPORT
-PROTEIN PUMP
-ENDOCYTOSIS
-EXOCYTOSIS
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
• MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES
ACROSS THE CELL MEMBRANE
WITHOUT ANY INPUT OF ENERGY BY
THE CELL.
• MOLECULES MOVE DOWN THE
CONCENTRATION GRADIENT.
– DIFFERENCE IN THE CONCENTRATION
OF MOLECULES ACROSS SPACE
Concentration Gradient
Passive
Transport
DIFFUSION
• SIMPLEST FORM
• MOVES MOLECULES FROM AN AREA
OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AN
AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION
UNTIL EQUILIBRIUM IS MET.
Osmosis
HYPOTONIC
HYPERTONIC
ISOTONIC
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
• REQUIRES ENERGY FROM THE CELL
• MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES FROM
AN AREA OF LOWER
CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF
HIGHER CONCENTRATION
• MOVEMENT GOES UP THE
CONCENTRATION GRADIENT.
Concentration Gradient
Active
Transport
CELL CYCLE
Cytokinesis
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Mitosis
Telophase
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
Did you notice that meiosis II is pretty much the same as mitosis?
Protein Synthesis
MENDEL’S PEA PLANT
EXPERIEMENTS
GENETIC TERMS
• Gene: a sequence of DNA that encodes for a
certain trait
• Allele: one of two (or more) alternative forms of a
gene
• Dominant Allele: an allele that dictates the
expression of a trait (capital letter, ex: A)
• Recessive Allele: an allele whose trait is masked by
the presence of a dominant allele (lower case letter,
ex: a)
TERMS
• Genotype: genetic make-up of an organism
(letter combination)
• Phenotype: physical appearance of an
organism (its outward appearance)
• Homozygous: both alleles in a gene pair code
for the same trait (ex: AA or aa)
• Heterozygous: the two alleles in a gene pair
that do not code for the same trait (ex: Aa)
TERMS
• Sex Chromosome: the chromosome that determines the sex
of an organism (the X and Y chromosome)
• Autosome: any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
• Punnett Square: a chart which shows all possible gene
combinations in a cross of parents
• Monohybrid cross: a cross between two individuals for one
trait (ex: Aa x Aa)
• Dihybrid cross: crossing two different characteristics at the
same time (AaBb x AaBb)
Punnett Squares
• A Punnett square is a chart which shows all
possible gene combinations in a cross of parents.
– Horizontally across the top of the chart are the
possible gametes of one parent.
– Vertically down the side of the chart are the
possible gametes of the other parent.
– In the boxes of the chart are the possible
genotypes of the offspring.
T
T
TT x tt
t
Tt
Tt
t
Tt
Tt
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
DOMINANCE
• COMPLETE DOMINANCE- a
heterozygous & a homozygous
organism are the same phenotypically.
–i.e BB=Bb
• INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE2 or more alleles influence the
phenotype resulting in a
phenotype intermediate of the
dominant and the recessive trait.
• CODOMINANCE- neither of the 2
alleles of the same gene totally
masks the other. The result is a
combination of both dominant traits.
Spontaneous Generation
• The belief before the 17th century
• Living things arose from non-living things
• Ex. Throwing waste into the street creates
rats and flies
• Three scientists tested this hypothesis:
• Redi
• Spallanzani
• Pasteur
• Conclusion to all 3 experiments:
spontaneous generation disproved
• The New hypothesis:
biogenesis = all living things come
from other living things.
TYPES OF ADAPTATIONS
• Structural
• Behavioral
• Physiological
EVOLUTION
• Evolution:
• The genetic change in a
species over time
• The following scientists came
up with possible hypotheses:
– Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
– Charles Darwin
– Alfred Russell Wallace
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck
Darwin’s hypothesis became known as:
Evolution by natural selection.
•Domain
•Kingdom
•Phylum
•Class
•Order
•Family
•Genus
•Species
Ecological
Pyramid of
Trophic Levels
Tertiary
Consumers
Energy
10%
H
Secondary
Consumers 10%
1%
Primary
Consumers
E
A
T
10%
Producers
Nutrients
Decomposers
Heat
Carbon Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
An experiment for a new asthma medication
was set up into two groups. Group one was
given the new drug for asthma, while group 2
was given a sugar pill. The sugar pill serves as a
____________.
A. Control
Answer:
B. Constant
C. Experimental
D. Dependent Variable
A. Control
Which of the following steps to solve
a problem must be completed first?
A.analyzing data
B.recognizing and identifying the
problem
C.forming a hypothesis
D.testing a hypothesis
Answer: B. recognizing and identifying the problem
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a
strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that
coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer
decides to check this this out by spraying half of the
shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half
of the shower with water. After 3 days of "treatment"
there is no change in the appearance of the green
slime on either side of the shower. IDENTIFY THE
FOLLOWING…….

Control
Independent variable
Dependent Variable
Hypothesis Statement
The factor that is varied in a controlled experiment is
called the
a. Control
b. Hypothesis
c. Dependent variable
d. Independent variable
Answer: D. Independent variable
Studying a picture of a cell taken with an electron
microscope, you find that the cell has no nucleus and
no mitochondria, but it does have a cell membrane
and a cell wall. You conclude that the cell is
probably from a (n)
a) animal
Answer: C) prokaryote
b) plant
c) prokaryote
d) now extinct organism
Name and describe three similarities
and three differences between plant
and animal cells.
Answer:
Similarities
Differences
-Have nucleus
for photosynthesis
-Plant cells have chloroplasts
-Have cell membranes
vacuoles
-Plant cells have larger
-Use mitosis & meiosis
-Plant cells have cell walls
Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that
eukaryotic cells
a. Lack organelles
b. Have DNA but not ribosomes
c. Are smaller than prokaryotic cells
d. Have a nucleus
Answer: D. Have a nucleus
 DNA and RNA both consist of which molecule:
A) Uracil
C) Nucleotide
B) Thymine
D) Deoxyribose
Answer: C) Nucleotide
 The molecule that is different between DNA & RNA is:
A) Phosphate
C) Adenine
B) Sugar
D) Nucleotide
Answer: B) Sugar
The enzymes responsible for adding nucleotides to
the exposed DNA template bases during DNA
replication are
a)
b)
c)
d)
replicases
RNA polymerases
helicases
DNA polymerases
Answer: D) DNA polymerases
Draw and label the four steps in DNA
replication.
Answer:
1. Helicase breaks the
bonds between the
nucleotides and unzips the
DNA strand
2. Free floating
nucleotides line up with their
complimentary base
3. Polymerase bonds the
nucleotides together
4. Two identical sister DNA
strands are formed.
 The molecule that makes up proteins are:
A) Lipids
C) Amino Acids
B) Carbohydrates
D) Nucleotides
Answer: C) Amino Acids
 The RNA that assists inside the nucleus during protein
synthesis is:
A) rRNA
C) tRNA
B) mRNA
D) pRNA
Answer: B) mRNA
Where does transcription take place in the
cell? Answer: Transcription takes place in the nucleus.
Where does translation take place in the
cell? Answer: Translation takes place in the cytoplasm
What is the relationship between the order
of bases in DNA and the order of amino
acids in the final protein?
Answer: The order of bases in DNA determines the
order of amino acids in the protein
If your DNA is different than someone
else’s DNA, is the amino acid sequence
always different? Explain your answer.
Answer: No, due to the fact that various codons code for the same
amino acids, there are situations that different DNA would create
the same amino acid sequence.
When the genes encoded in
deoxyribonucleic acid are expressed,
what type of macromolecule is being
created? Answer: PROTEIN
What process involves making
proteins from the information
carried by mRNA?
a. DNA Replication
b. Gene regulation
c. Transcription
d. Translation
Answer: D. Tranlsation
I
II
III
?
?
?
?
= affected
What is the chance that individual III 1
will inherit this condition?
Answer: 50%
= normal
A woman with type AB blood
(genotype IAIB) marries a man with
A
B
type O blood (genotype ii). I and I
are codominant with each other, but
A
B
i is recessive to both I and I . They
can expect what blood type(s) from
their offspring.
Answer: A or B
Four of the five answers listed below are
characteristic of mutations.
Select the exception
a. predictable
b. lethal, beneficial or neutral
c. random
Answer: A. predictable
d. effects depend upon environment
e. heritable
A hitchhiker’s thumb is dominant to a straight thumb.
A heterozygous man reproduces with a homozygous
recessive female. What percent chance does their
child have of getting a hitchhiker’s thumb?
Answer:
There is a 50% chance their child will have a hitchhiker
thumb.
 Using the food web to the right,
which organism can transform
light energy into chemical
energy?
A) 1
Answer:
A)C)1 3
B) 5
D) 7
 If organism 2 were killed off,
which organisms would be
affected?
A) None of
Answer:
D)them
9
C) 8
B) All of them
D) 9
What weak bond holds together the two strands of
nucleotides in a DNA molecule?
A. Covalent
B. Hydrogen
C. Ionic
D. Nuclear
Answer: B
The organisms in level 2 have 500,000 kilocalories of
available energy. How much energy will be transferred to
organisms in level 4?
Answer: 5,000 kilocalories
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Cytochrome c is a protein that is involved in cellular respiration in all eukaryotic
organisms. Human cytochrome c contains 104 amino acids. The following table
compares cytochrome c from a number of other organisms to human cytochrome c.
Number of cytochromen c amino acids different
Organism
From humans
Answer:
Chimpanzees
0
Chickens
18
D) The proteins produced
by chimpanzees
Dogs
13 and humans are identical
to each other. ThereforeRattlesnakes
these organisms
20 differ in characteristics that
Rhesus monkeys 1
aren’t determined by proteins.
Yeasts
56
Which of the following is not a valid conclusion that can be drawn from this data?
A) Chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than rhesus monkeys are.
B) The cytochrome c of chimpanzees differs from that of rhesus monkeys by
only one amino acid
C) Dogs are more closely related to humans than chickens are.
D)The proteins produced by chimpanzees and humans are identical to each other.
Therefore these organisms differ in characteristics that aren’t determined by proteins.
FIGURE 1
FIGURE 2
What is the scientific name for Figure 1? Answer: Cladogram
Which one of the figures provides information regarding
related phenotypes? Answer: Figure 1
Which figure(s) is/are used by geneticists to determine
genetic variation from a common ancestor? Answer: Figure 2
What term describes the process by which a species
becomes better suited to its environment?
a. Adaptation
b. Equilibrium
c. Gradualism
d. Natural selection
Answer: A. Adaptation ???
Alfred Russel Wallace was a biologist who collected insects
on a 1848 expedition to the Amazon. He also made
observations in the Malay archipelago between 1854 and
1862. Wallace discovered that animals on the western islands
of the Malay Archipelago differed sharply from those on the
eastern islands.
Answer: C. punctuated equilibirium or D. reporductive isolation
What condition might have caused these animals to evolve
into different species?
a. fossilization
b. population growth
c. punctuated equilibrium
d. reproductive isolation
Gene flow is best defined as:
a. the movement of genetic material from
the nucleus to the cytoplasm
b. the transmission of genetic information
from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
c. the transmission of genetic information
from the parents to the offspring
d. the spread of alleles through a
population over a period of successive
Answer: D ??
generations
e. the movement of genes from one
chromosomes to another
Which population
would likely increase if
the Adelie penguins
were removed from the
ecosystem above?
A. Killer whale
B. Leopard seal
C. Petrel
D. Fish
Answer:
D. Fish
38. What is the percent of the population for
females between the ages of 0-10 years?
39. What is the percent of the population
between the ages of 70-80 years?
40. Explain what the population pyramid is
saying about the population in Thailand in 2004.
State a possible reason for why the population is
distributed as so.
Which of the following statements provides the best
explanation for the disruption of ecosystems by pollutants?
a) Pollutants differ chemically from naturally-occurring
substances.
b) Only humans have uses for pollutant chemicals.
c) There are no adaptive mechanisms that can deal with the
pollutants.
d) Pollutants are chemicals that cannot be broken down and
so they accumulate in ecosystems.
Answer:
A. ?????
What term applies most to humans?
a. carnivore
b. herbivore
c. omnivore
d. detrivore
Answer: C. omnivore
What is the process by which materials pass between the
nonliving environment and living organisms?
a. biogeochemical cycle
c. food web
Answer: A. biogeochemical cycle
b. energy pyramid
d. primary succession
Catch, Tag, and Release Sampling of Fish in a Pond
Fish
Goldfish
Trout
Catfish
Guppie
Sample 1
5
3
1
10
Sample 2
6
2
0
15
Sample 3
8
5
2
12
Sample 4
9
2
3
11
What is the calculated mean of Trout captured per sample?
Answer:
B. 3 B. 3
A. 5
C. 4
D. 2
What is the range of Guppie captured?
A.
10
Answer:
D. 5 B. 15
C. 11
D. 5
Sample 5
4
3
1
11
The final stage of
ecological
succession is
characterized by
the presence of
the climax
community, the
oak-hickory
forest. Figure 3
depicts the
gradual change
from pine to
hardwoods.
1.
On the basis of the data presented in Figure 1, approximately 80 years after the
abandonment of cropland, the land would contain:
A.pine seedlings only.
Answer:
D) large
pineforests
treesonly.
with an understory of hardwood
B.oak-hickory
hardwood
trees.
C.early invading species like horseweed, aster, and broomsedge.
D.large pine trees with an understory of hardwood trees.
Height and Arm Span of 10 People
Person
Height (Inches)
Arm Span (Inches)
A
70
71
B
62
61
C
70
69
D
64
62
E
72
71
F
62
58
G
65
64
H
68
67
I
69
69
J
74
72
Using the above information, create a graph that is most
Answer: Person
would
67 inches tall. The person
appropriate
for Kthis
typebeofapproximately
data.
with a height of 65 inches has an arm span of 64 inches & the person
When
have completed
the following
question:
that isyou
68 inches
tall has anyour
arm graph,
span ofanswer
67 inches,
you can deduce
that
if a person
hasKan
arm
66 inches
that they
willisbe
If Person
has
an span
Arm of
Span
of 66 inches,
what
this person’s
approximately
inch
taller how
than you
theircame
arm span.
Height? one
And,
explain
up with this answer.
Distance a Dog Travels from a Chair
Distance from the Chair
(feet)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Time (seconds)
InAnswer:
a room, there is a dog and a chair. Using the above graph, describe:
The dog isWhat
not moving
or away 5from
the seconds.
chair.
the dog towards
is doing between
and 7.5
MovingWhat
towards
the
chair
quickly.
is the
dog
doing
between about 8 and 9 seconds?
Approximate Acres of Land burned in Arizona from 2000- 2005
700
Thousands of Acres
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Answer:
1. Howacres
many acres of land burned in Arizona in 2005?
350,000
2005
2.No,
Is this
theitbest
typetime
of graph
this would
data? be
Explain
not.
since
is over
a linefor
graph
more why/why
appropriate.
3.The
Is there
anyisrequired
element
from be
thelabeled:
graph above?
If yes, explain
X-axis
not labeled.
It would
Years recorded
why it is needed and correct the error.
Student Study Time and Test Scores
100
Grade on Test
80
60
40
20
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Hours of Study
1.Answer:
1. Is there a correlation between Hours of Study and
Grade
on Test?
If so,correlation
what type of correlation is it?
Yes, there
is a positive
The
study
bettergraph
your grade
in onabout
the test.
2.longer
Whatyou
does
thethe
above
tell you
Study
Time?
8
What is missing for the graph above? Answer: Title
Given the relationship between the lynx and the snowshoe
hare, what would the hare population have to be in 1928 in
order for the lynx population reached 100,000 in 1930?