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Transcript
Rome: Republic To Empire
500 BC-14 AD
Rome’s Rise
A. Origins/Geography
B. Politics
II. Expansion
• Why/How?
III. War-Lords
A. Military Power
B. Caesar (100-44 BC)
V. Octavian (63 BC-14 AD)
A. Rise
B. “Pax Romana”
I.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Key Terms
Roman Constitution
Consul
Roman Citizenship
Julius Caesar
Octavian/Augustus
Dole
Mythology & Founding Rome
Romulus & Remus founded Rome. Their father, the god
Mars, left them to die but were saved by a she-wolf.
Ancient Italy
• People first lived in area
about 1400 BC
• Tiber River was crucial
for farming and
transportation
Roman Constitution
(Three “Branches” To Check The Others)
•
Consuls had supreme military and political
power.
Office Of Consul
• Consuls introduced legislation & led armies.
• Two were elected to a term of one year each &
each could block or veto the actions of the other.
• The Senate could name one consul “dictator” for
six months in times of crisis.
Roman Constitution
(Three “Branches” To Check The Others)
• Consuls had supreme military and political power.

Senate-about 300 men from “leading” families;
controlled finances and foreign policy.
• Assemblies-included all adult male citizens who
voted on all laws (but usually followed advice of
Senate).
Rome’s Rise
(By 265 BC Italy Was United With Rome As Its
Capital)
Roman Conquest
1. The Romans had the best trained and
equipped forces & were large in number (ages
16-60).
Roman Army
• Divided into Legions
(5,500-6,000 troops)
• Subdivided into
Centuries with
different specialties
Cavalry
Helmut & Gladius
Gladius = Most important weapon
Initially they were
leather, then bronze
Roman Soldiers
•
•
•
•
Wearing armor
VERY highly trained
& disciplined
Largely ate a
vegetarian diet
Cowardice =
Unforgivable sin
Soldiers received
little or no pay
Wearing helmet
& shield
Roman Conquest
1. The Romans had the best trained and equipped
forces & were large in number (ages 16-60).
2. Local rule and Citizenship was granted to
many they conquered; all rebellion was
CRUSHED.
Roman Citizenship
1. Included: All over 15 whose parents were
citizens or individuals granted citizenship.
2. Rights: Immunity from torture; right to appeal
& suffrage (vote—for males).
3. Responsibilities: Military Service (males 1660); can’t hold office unless 10 year military
veteran.
Roman Conquest
1. The Romans had the best trained and equipped
forces that were large in number (ages 16-60).
2. Local rule and Citizenship was granted to many they
conquered; all rebellion was CRUSHED.
3. Romans built roads of that literally bound the
empire together.
War-Lords & Military Power
• Military leaders eventually had a tremendous
amount of political power; they brought wealth
(tax money) to the state.
Gaius Julius Caesar
• From a wealthy family.
• Commissioner of public
works.
• 59 BC elected consul.
• Successfully conquered
Gaul.
• Won the civil war and was
named dictator.
(100-44 BC)
Caesar’s Impact Today
• Updated the calendar (365 days).
• Month of his birth is July.
• Caesarian Section…?
Augustus
(31 BC-14 AD)
Ushered in the “Pax Romana”—
tremendous prosperity
Octavian/Augustus’s
Pax Romana
1. Decentralized government by allowing more
local government.
2. Improved city life.
3. Established the dole.
4. Instituted religious and social reform.
•Laws curbed adultery and pre-marital sex
& rewarded large families.
Rome: Republic To Empire
500 BC-14 AD
Rome’s Rise
A. Origins/Geography
B. Politics
II. Expansion
• Why/How?
III. War-Lords
A. Military Power
B. Caesar (100-44 BC)
V. Octavian (63 BC-14 AD)
A. Rise
B. “Pax Romana”
I.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Key Terms
Roman Constitution
Consul
Roman Citizenship
Julius Caesar
Octavian/Augustus
Dole