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Transcript
1.Review- Name four
groups of organic
compounds found in
living things
Explain- Describe at
least one function of
each group of organic
compounds
Infer- Why are proteins
considered polymers
but lipids not
2.Observe- What atoms
constitute the
compound above
Classify- what class of
macromolecules does
the compound belong
to
CH 2 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
2.3 Carbon Compounds


Organic chemistry means the study of compounds
that contain bonds between carbon atoms, while
inorganic chemistry is the study of all other
compounds
In the early 1800s, many chemists called the
compounds created by organisms “organic,”
believing they were fundamentally different from
compounds in nonliving things.
The Chemistry of Carbon

Have four valence electrons
 Allows
them to form 4 strong covalent bonds with
many other elements

Living organisms are made up of molecules that
consist of carbon and other elements.
The Chemistry of Carbon



Carbon atoms can also bond to carbon atoms
Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or
triple covalent bonds
Chains of carbon atoms can also form rings.
Macromolecules



Made from 1000’s or even
100,000’s of smaller
molecules
Formed by a process known
as polymerization
Large compounds are built
by joining smaller ones
together.
Macromolecules

Monomers
 The

smaller units
Polymers
 When
the
monomers join
together.
Macromolecules


Sorted into groups based on their chemical
composition
Four major groups are Carbohydrates, Lipids,
Nucleic acids, and Proteins.
Carbohydrates




Only contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Always the same ration CH2O
Sugars are the subunits and may vary in number of
carbons it contains
To make a carb., hook many sugars together.
Simple Sugars

Monosaccharides
 Single
sugar molecules
 Glucose
 Galactose
 Fructose

Disaccharide
 Compound
made of two single sugars
 Sucrose

Not all sugars are sweet.
Uses of Carbohydrates



Energy
Storage
Building.
Carbohydrates

Store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates. The
monomers in starch polymers are sugar molecules,
such as glucose.
Complex Carbohydrates

Large macromolecules formed from
monosaccharides are known as polysaccharides.
Complex Carbohydrates

Starch
 Energy

storage in plants, human food source
Cellulose
 Structure

in plants, humans cannot digest
Glycogen
 Energy
storage in animals.
Lipids



Only contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Consists of long Carbon chains with Hydrogens
attached
Very efficient at storing energy- 2X per mass as
carbs.
Other Uses of Lipids




Cholesterol
Hormones
Steroids
Phospholipids.
Lipids

Formed when a glycerol molecule combines with
compounds called fatty acids.
Lipids

Saturated
 Each
carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chains is joined
to another carbon atom by a single bond

Unsaturated
 At

least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid
Polyunsaturated
 Contain
more than one double bond.
Lipids


Unsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room
temperature
Saturated fatty acids tend to be solid at room
temperature.
Nucleic Acids
Used for hereditary
information
 Made of Nucleotides

 Contain
a phosphate,
sugar, and nitrogen base
 Nucleotides join together
to form Nucleic acids.
Nucleic Acids


Nucleotides can be joined by covalent bonds to
form a polynucleotide, or nucleic acid
Two kinds of nucleic acids:
 Ribonucleic
acid (RNA)
 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Protein



Used for muscle, cell
structure, and enzymes
Formed using the subunit
Amino Acids
Always have the pattern
N-C-C.
Amino Acids



20 different amino acids
Plants can make all 20, we can’t
Amino group (–NH2) on one end and a carboxyl
group (–COOH) on the other.
Making a Protein

Peptide Bonds
 Covalent
bonds link amino acids together to form a
polypeptide.
Levels of Organization



Proteins have four levels of
structure
Primary structure is the
sequence of its amino acids
Secondary structure is the
folding or coiling of the
polypeptide chain.
Levels of Organization


Tertiary structure is the
complete, three-dimensional
arrangement of a polypeptide
chain
Quaternary structure is the
arrangement of multiple
polypeptides
 Hemoglobin
has four subunits (4
polypeptides).