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Organic Molecules
Chapter 6, section 4
• Body is mostly made up of water and
organic compounds
• Anything made up of carbon is called
• Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds (form
different arrangements of atoms:
straight, branched, rings)
4 types of organic compounds in
ALL living things
• A) Carbohydrates
• C) Proteins
• B) Lipids
• D) Nucleic Acids
• Isomer- compound that have the same
chemical formula but different
structures (different structures mean
different chemical and physical
• Cells make macromolecules
(small compounds + small compounds)
1) polymer= large macromolecule consisting of
repeated linked units
2) monomer= each subunit, building block of
• Carbohydrates- organic molecule made
of C, H, and O
• 2 Hydrogen for each Oxygen
• Ex. Starches, sugars, cellulose
• Key function to store and provide
Exist as Mono, Di, or Polysaccharide
• A) Monosaccharidesimple sugar
ex. Glucose (major source of
energy in cells) and fructose
• B) Disaccharide- double
sugar, two monosaccharides
Ex. ex. Sucrose (table sugar)=
Glucose + Fructose
• C) Polysaccharidecomplex sugars made of
3 or more sugars
Starch (plants store food as
Glycogen (stored in liver
and muscles for
quick energy)
Cellulose (structural support
for plants)
• Lipids- nonpolar molecules that CAN NOT dissolved in
• Contains C, H, and O
• More Hydrogen than Carbohydrates
• Key function to store energy, make up cell
membranes, insulate/protect/ and make hormones
• Lipid= 3 fatty acids (long chain of carbons with
hydrogen atoms attached) AND glycerol (alcohol with
3 carbon atoms)
• Commonly called fats and oils
Two kinds of Lipids
1) Saturated- lipids with single bonds
- Solid at room temperature
- Come from animal products
- Known as fats
2) Unsaturated- lipids with double bonds
- Liquid at room temperature
- Come from plant products
- Called oils
**Some lipids are used as a
protective coating (sea birds/ ducks/plants)**
• Proteins- large polymer of C,
H, O, N and S
• Amino acids- building blocks
of proteins
- 20 amino acids
- peptide bonds= bonds that
form between amino acids
- polypeptide= amino acids
bond together to form long
• Different sequencing of amino acids result in
different proteins being made
• Key function to build structure and carry out all
• Some proteins are:
1) Structural (hair and nails)
2) function in transport (hemoglobin)
3) function in movement (muscle fibers
and cytoskeletal elements)
4) defense (antibodies)
5) regulation of cell functions (hormones and enzymes)
Nucleic Acids
• Nucleic Acids- large, complex
macromolecule that stores information
in the form of a code
• Made up of C, H, O, N, P
• Nucleic acids made up of nucleotides
(sugar, base, phosphate group)
1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- genetic
code (passes instructions from parents
to offspring)
2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)- copy and
transfer genetic information in a cell