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Transcript
Why Study Robots now?
MIT Kismet
Honda Asimo
2003
Sojourner 1996
NavLab (CMU)
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
1
Moore’s Law - Computers and Brains
AI
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
Figure from ROBOT, Moravec, Oxford, 1998, Chapter 3: Power and Presence, page 68
2
Why learn to program with Robots ?
1. Robots are becoming commercially viable – need developers
2. Serious promise of Artificial Intelligence – needs researchers
3. Fundamental aspects :
1. Good vehicle for teaching programming …
2. Important analogy of each living being … the Self
3. Important analogy of societies … Communication
N.B. we are thinking of Autonomous Robots
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
3
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
4
Human Robot
Human
Group Robot
Group
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
5
Human Qualities
Affective
Cognitive
Thinking
Feeling
s
Knowin
g
Emotions
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
Psychomotoric
Acting
Behavin
g
6
Behaviour Modules
Collision
SearchLight
Idea is to split overal desired
behaviour into a number of
“modules” of program code
which can run independently.
These may be arranged to
have priorities
Wander
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
7
Rod Brookes + Cogs
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
8
Combining Behaviours
Subsumption (Brookes)
bumper
eyes
Collide
s
Searchlight
s
Wander
Behaviour Modules
s
Motors
Combine by subsumption
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
9
DARPA ALV
(Autonomous Land Vehicle)
Internalized
Plans
Behaviour 3
Behaviour 2
Behaviour 1
sensors
s
s
s
Motors
There IS a global map !
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
10
Braitenberg (1984), Vehicles: Experiments in
Synthetic Psychology, MIT Press.
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
11
Braitenberg Vehicles
Wander
lamp
Braitenberg
Collide
LM
CPU
SearchLight
RM
Choice of Behaviour
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
12
Java Behaviour Routines
lamp
Braitenberg
LM
eyeLF
eyeRF
RM
public void wander() {
forever {
wander_flag = true;
wanderOpL = 10;
wanderOpR = 10;
muMonDefer();
}
}
public void searchlight() {
forever {
if(eyeLF > eyeRF) {
searchlight_flag = true;
searchlightOpR = ??;
searchlightOpL = ??;
muMonSleep(100);
searchlight_flag
= false;
Behaviour Routines
}
if(eyeLF > 0) {
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
13
Two motors Two Dimensions
If the connections are not
crossed, then it turns away
from excitation – coward
Ipsilateral excitation
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
14
Uncrossed inhibitory
connections (note the –sign)
give ipsilateral inhibition:
Turns towards the light and
slows down as it gets close
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
15
Brood Sorting
The Emergence of Intelligence
robot
puck
Martijn Schut http://www.cs.vu.nl/~zos
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
16
Problem is to get one
(or more) autonomous
robots to clear the junk
into heaps …
• How to do the programming ?
• Imagine doing the clearing up yourself !
Program the Robots explicitly to
• find an object
• take an object
• go back to cluster
• find a cluster
• drop an object
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
17
Alternative
Program the robots to avoid things
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
18
Conclusions :
• Behaviour Emerges !
• Intelligence in the Indivudal or Group ?
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
19
• Messor Sancta ants
• 1,500 corpses
• 26 hours
• Put dead ants into graveyards by walking around
bumping into them
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
20
• Football as benchmark for AI advances
• Worldwide competitions since 1997
• Current Leagues
SmallSize
Simulation
MidSize
Sony Dog
Humanoide
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
21
CBP 2003 Robot lecture 2
22