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Learning Processes
Classical Conditioning - learning by association
- a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response originally made to another stimulus
Operant Conditioning - learning by consequences
Response - act
Positive reinforcement - consists of something that is desired: behavior is more likely to recur
Negative reinforcement - removal of something onerous: again, behavior is more likely to recur
Positive punishment - consists of something unpleasant: behavior is less likely to recur
Negative punishment - again, behavior is less likely to recur
Using Punishment Effectively
1. Teach and reinforce alternative behaviors
2. Explain the reason for the punishment
3. Punish as soon as possible
4. Punish firmly
5. Punish consistently
6. Promote and maintain firm attachment
7. Consider alternatives to punishment, especially to physical punishment
Dealing with Non-compliant Children
Non-compliance may inadvertently be re-inforced.
Negative reinforcement
- parent gives an order
- child whines and objects
- parent gives in
Positive reinforcement
- parent gives an order
- child does not comply
- parent spend much time arguing and
- child is receiving extra attention
Encouraging the Learning of Appropriate Behaviors
1. Attend to and reinforce appropriate behaviors
2. Ignore minor inappropriate behaviors
3. Give clear, succinct "commands"
4. Reinforce obedience
5. If possible, give advance warning
6. Provide choices
What is the child after - Attention?
Observational Learning
Direct imitation – relatively exact duplication of the model's behavior when the context is right
Inhibitory effects – the suppression of deviant behavior, usually as a result of the model being punished
Disinhibitory effects – observing models may disinhibit responses that are usually held in check