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204 FOOD PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY a thermoplastic material in that it is not processed in a molten phase or softened by heat. Cellulose is, however, a high-molecular weight, naturally derived, polymer. To make it flexible, it is plasticised with humectants (glycol type). The degree of flexibility can be adjusted to suit the application. The degree of flexibility can range from a fairly rigid level to the most flexible, which is known as twist-wrap used to wrap individual units of sugar confectionery. RCF is dead folding so that it keeps a folded, or twist wrapped, condition. It is a poor barrier to water vapour, and this property is made use of with products which need to lose moisture, such as pastries and other flour confections, to achieve the correct texture when packed. Plastic films such as PP or PE would keep the relative humidity (RH) too high inside such a package and therefore encourage mould growth. When dry, RCF is a good barrier to oxygen. Heat sealability and an improved barrier to water vapour and common gases are achieved by coating. The coatings are either nitrocellulose (MS type) or PVdC (MX type). A range of barrier performances are possible by choice and method of coating. It can be coloured and metallised. (Red coloured breathable RCF secured with a printed label on the base is used to wrap Christmas puddings.) RCF is printable. RCF can be laminated with paper, aluminium foil, PET, metallised PET and PE to achieve specific levels of performance and appearance. It is resistant to heat and is used in laminates where reheating involves temperatures in the range 220â250Â°C. Usage today is much reduced with the availability of the lower cost BOPP, which matches RCF in many properties. The pack design is usually a form/fill/seal pouch type. RCF is used in food packaging for gift packs and for packaging which is specified as biodegradable (compostable). Uncoated thick RCF is used to demonstrate tamper evidence on a bottle. This is done by moistening a small diameter RCF sleeve, slipping it over the bottle closure and top part of the neck and allowing it to dry when it shrinks tightly to the bottle and closure. Cellulose acetate is also derived from cellulose. It has high transparency and gloss. It can be printed. It has been used as a laminate with paperboard for confectionery cartons and as a window in carton design. In both applications, it is more expensive than BOPP. It has also been replaced by PVC, PET and PP as a sheet material for the manufacture of transparent cartons. 7.3.19 Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) PVA is a polymer of vinyl acetate which forms a highly amorphous material with good adhesive properties in terms of open time, tack and dry bond strength. The main use of PVA in food packaging is as an adhesive dispersion in water. PVA adhesives are used to seal the side seams of folding cartons and corrugated fibreboard cases and to laminate paper to aluminium foil.