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Product and Brand Management
What is a product?
• A product is any offering by a company to a
market that serves to satisfy customer needs
and wants.
• It can be an object, service, idea,etc.
New Product Development
• Most new product development is an
improvement on existing products
• Less than 10% of new products are totally
new concepts.
Success rate of new products
• The success rate of new products is very
low – less than 2%. ‘You have to kiss a lot
of frogs to find a prince.”
• Product obsolescence is rapid with
improvements in technology
• Shorter PLCs
Product Development Stages
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Idea generation
Idea screening
Concept development and testing
Concept testing
Conjoint analysis – to find out the best
valued attributes by consumers
Business analysis
• The most customer appealing offer is not
always the most profitable to make
• Estimate on costs, sales volumes,pricing
and profit levels are made to find out the
optimal price – volume mix.
• Breakeven and paybacks
• Discounted cash flow projections
Market testing
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Test markets
Test periods
What information to gather?
What action to take?
Commercialization
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When? (Timing)
Where? (Which geographical markets)
To whom? (Target markets)
How? (Introductory Marketing strategy)
Product Levels
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Customer value hierarchy
Core benefit
Basic product
Expected product
Augmented product
Potential product
Customer Delight
• When you exceed customer expectations
Product Hierarchy
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Need
Product family
Product class
Product Line
Product type
Brand
Item
Product classification
• Durable
• Non – durable
• Services
Consumer goods classification
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Convenience goods
Shopping goods
Specialty goods
Unsought goods
Industrial goods classification
• Materials and Parts
- raw materials
- manufactured materials and parts
• Capital items
• Supplies and business services
Product Mix
• The assortment of products that a company offers
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to a market
Width – how many different product lines?
Length – the number of items in the product line
Depth – The no. of variants offered in a product
line
Consistency – how closely the product lines are
related in usage
Product Line decisions
• Product rationalization
• Market rationalization
• Product line length
too long – when profits increase by dropping a
product in the line
too short – when profits increase by adding
products to the product line
• Line pruning – capacity restrictions to decide
Packaging
• Includes the activities of designing and
producing the container for a product
• Packaging is done at three levels
- primary
- secondary
- shipping
Packaging as a marketing tool
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Self service
Consumer affluence
Company and brand image
innovation
Designing packaging
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Packaging concepts
Technical specifications
Engineering tests
Visual tests
Dealer tests
Consumer tests
Packaging innovations
Environmental considerations
Labels
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Identification
Grade classification
Description of product
Manufacturer identity
Date of mfg., batch no.
Instructions for use
Promotion
Labels as a marketing tool
• Labels need to change with time or
packaging changes to give it a
contemporary and fresh look