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117 LOGISTICAL PACKAGING FOR FOOD MARKETING SYSTEMS Top deck opening Top interior deckboard Top lead deckboard Overall height Opening height Length Width Stringer foot Notch Bottom deck opening Bottom deckboard Wheel opening Chamfer Center stringer Outer stringer (Runner) Hand pallet and forklift trunk fork opening Top interior deckboards Butted end Bottom boards lead board Top lead Overall height deckboard Length Opening height Width Top stringerboard Butted end boards Bottom deckboards Chamfer Block Figure 4.3 Four-way entry pallets with stringers (top) or blocks. Source: National Wooden Pallet and Container Association, Alexandria, VA, 1998. Reprinted with permission. A slipsheet is a flexible platform made from a sheet of heavy fiberboard or plastic. They are used because of their low cost and minimum cube usage. However, special handling equipment is required to be used by both the shipper and consignees. A special kind of lift truck attachment pulls the sheet onto a polished steel platform which carries it on the front of the lift truck. To set it down, the attachment pushes the load off the platform. Another special kind of equipment is a clamp truck. It grabs a load between platens and squeezes it with enough pressure to be able to lift it as a unit and carry it in its clamps.