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The smallest wood is used
to make particleboard and
chipboard. This timber, as
well as small trees, is also
used as fuel
Sawmill waste is used
to make paper and
Small trunk parts
are used to make
parts of the trunk are sawn
Figure 8.23 How the tree is used (courtesy of Iggesund Paperboard).
A major advantage of paper and paperboard is that it can be recycled as
fibre and used to make new paper and paperboard materials (Fig. 8.24).
Pulp recovery from waste paper and board is an example of material
recycling and between 40 and 60% of paper and board is recovered in Europe
and North America. Commercial and industrial waste paper is relatively easy
to collect and systems have been in place for 100 years or so where the driving
force was based on commercial viability. In recent times attention has been
focussed on domestic or post consumer waste. Systems are being developed to
segregate and recover more paper and board from this source.
Packaging accounts for about 10% of all paper and board consumption and
many paper and paperboard packaging products are based on recovered paper
and board. The infrastructure for recovery is based on merchants and a categorisation of the various types of waste paper and board. Prices of the various
grades depend on the fibre quality and the market forces of supply and demand.
A quality described as ‘clean white shavings arising from mills or printers
trimmings’ is in quality terms almost as good as virgin pulp and is high priced.
Mixed unsorted waste has the lowest price.
Pulp is a world-wide commodity and a mix of recycled and virgin pulp is
necessary to meet the overall needs of the market in terms of quality and