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PLASTICS IN FOOD PACKAGING 191 LDPE and LLDPE can be used in blends with EVA to improve strength and heat sealing. There is a degree of overlap in application between LDPE and LLDPE, due to the fact that there are differences in both, as a result of the conditions of polymer manufacture and on-going product development. The thickness used for specific applications can vary, and this can also have commercial implications. MDPE or medium-density PE film is mechanically stronger than LDPE and therefore used in more demanding situations. LDPE is coextruded with MDPE to combine the good sealability of LDPE with the toughness and puncture resistance of MDPE, e.g. for the inner extrusion coating of sachets for dehydrated soup mixes. HDPE or high-density PE is the toughest grade and is extruded in the thinnest gauges. This film is used for boil-in-the-bag applications. To improve heat sealability, HDPE can be coextruded with LDPE to achieve peelable seals where the polymer layers can be made to separate easily at the interface of the coextrusion. A grade of HDPE film is available with either TD monoaxial orientation or biaxial orientation. This film is used for twist wrapping sugar confectionery and for lamination to oriented PP (OPP). The TD-oriented grade easily tears across the web but is more difficult to tear along the web. Being coextruded, a heatsealable layer is applied to enable the film to run on conventional form/fill/seal machines. The biaxially oriented film has properties similar to that of OPP but has a higher moisture vapour barrier. It may be coated in the same way as OPP, including metallising, to give a high-barrier performance film with the good sealing integrity associated with PE. HDPE is injection moulded for closures, crates, pallets and drums, and rotationally moulded for intermediate bulk containers (IBCs). A major application of HDPE is for blow moulded milk containers with a capacity 0.5â3 l. 7.3.2 Polypropylene (PP) PP is an addition polymer of propylene formed under heat and pressure using Zieger-Natta type catalysts to produce a linear polymer with protruding methyl (CH2) groups. The resultant polymer is a harder and denser resin than PE and more transparent in its natural form. The usage of PP developed from the 1950s onwards. PP has the lowest density and highest melting point of all the high volume usage thermoplastics and has a relatively low cost. This versatile plastic can be processed in many ways and has many food packaging applications in both flexible film and rigid form. The high melting point of PP (160Â°C) makes it suitable for applications where thermal resistance is needed, for example in hot filling and microwave packaging. PP may be extrusion laminated to PET or other high-temperatureresistant films to produce heat-sealable webs which can withstand temperatures of up to 115â130Â°C, for sterilising and use in retort pouches.