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From republic to empire
 Turn to page 175 and examine the map of the Roman
 Problems in the government and in Roman society
led to the end of the Roman Republic and the
beginning of a new system of government
 Essential Question: What led to the end of the
Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of
6.2- Problems in the Late Republic
 By the mid-100’s BCE, Rome had no rivals in the
 As the Roman Republic grew, so did tensions
between the social classes in Rome, which would
cause a revolution to change the social and political
6.2- Problems in the Late Republic
 Social Unrest
 In 133 BCE the Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, were
among the first officials to address the growing tensions
 Many Solider-farmers came home from war to find their farms
 Gracchi brothers advocated for redistribution of land to
farmer-soldiers to reduce their poverty
 This resulted in the Senate urging people to kill the Gracchi
brothers, and introduced violence as a political tool
6.2- Problems in the Late Republic
 The Military and Politics
Gauis Marius- changes the army from private to public
You did not have to own land to be in army
 Poor people began joining the army in hopes of gaining plunder
As the social and political tensions increased, military leaders soon
realized that they could lead an army of soldiers loyal to them to
seize some power from the Republic
 Social War
Rome’s allies had been trying to gain citizenship but the Senate
In 91 BCE conflict broke out
Italian Rebellions were defeated but only after they were promised
6.2- Problems in the Late Republic
 Civil War
90 BC
Social War brought about a powerful general Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Marius tried to prevent Sulla from taking military command
Sulla, a Roman general and consul, marches his army into Rome to
seize power, which causes a Civil War to begin – Sulla wins the war
and becomes a dictator
Was a consul and had the right to command the army. Marius and
supports tried to prevent Sulla from commanding the army, thus the
civil war broke out
Sulla’s rise to power will serve as a model for future leaders and a
new system of government
He involuntarily took power away from the Repbulic
Knowledge Check Point
 How did Gaius Maris improve recruitment for the
 What problems might result from armies that were
largely private forces devoted to their general?
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 Rome Becomes an Empire
 The end of the Republic was the result of a few influential individuals
 The First Triumvirate – Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus take
over the Roman Empire in 60 BCE
Caesar, Pompey, were all military leaders and added land to the republic
Crassus was very wealthy
In 60 BCE the 3 men took over rule of the republic
Each ruled huge portions of the Roman Empire
When Crassus dies, Pompey and Caesar fight a civil war for total control, which
Caesar wins
Caesar is declared dictator for life by the Senate and begins reforms in Rome
such as giving citizenship to people and land to veterans, both made him popular
with the public, but not with the Senate
Senators were afraid that Caesar wanted to declare himself king and destroy the
Roman Republic
Because of this fear, The Senate assassinated Caesar, which did not save the
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 Second Triumvirate- Octavian, Marc Antony, and
Caesar’s murder did not save the republic
In 43 BCE Octavian (Caesar’s adopted heir), Marc Antony (military
official), and Lepidus ( priest) took over as the 2nd triumvirate
Lepidus was pushed out and Antony and Octavian decide to spilt the
Eventually another civil war between Octavian and Antony.
Octavian defeated Antony and his ally, Queen Cleopatra in the Naval
Battle of Actium in 31 BC.
Antony and Cleopatra committed double suicide leaving Octavian to
Octavian was victorious and the republic would end and a new era in
Rome would begin
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 From Octavian to Augustus
 He created a new political order, known as the empire,
however, he was careful not to use the word emperor or king
 He said he had the same power as any other magistrate.
 Called himself princeps or first citizen
 Octavian was given the title of Augustus by the Senate, (27
BCE) which means “revered one”
 Making him the emperor
 Was known by that name hence forth
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 The Augustan Age
Octavian would rule Rome for 40 years during which he would expand the empire’s borders,
see over the beautification of Rome, and encouraged the creation of Roman literature and
art, and ensures a smooth transition from a republican government to a dictatorship
He divided the power to rule Rome between himself and the Senate.
Expanded the empire
Augustan Age was period of creativity in Latin literature
Great writers flourished, some of Rome’s most famous writers.
Brought religious reform
Said “ I found Rome built of bricks; I leave her clothed in marble”
Brought peace to many places in the empire
Created police forces
Fire brigades
Stock piled food
Patronage of the arts
Admin and finances came under Augustus’s control
Said that since the god’s made the empire it was wise to respect them
He died in 14 AD
Knowledge Check Point
 Who were the members of the first Triumvirate?
 Why was Caesar popular with the people?
 What are some possible reason Octavian did not
return to the old republic government?
 What was the special name given to Octavian, and
what did it mean?
 Do you think Augustus help improve and advance
knowledge of ancient Rome?
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 Julio-Claudians and Flavians
 After the death of Augustus in 14 CE relatives of Caesar, called
the Julio-Claudians, would rule the empire until 68 CE (AD)
Tiberius- competent ruler
 Caligula- mentally unstable
 Nero- mentally unstable, committed suicide in 68 CD
After the death of the last Julio-Claudian dictator a civil war
erupts and after the Flavian dictators will rule until 96 CE and
restore order, peace, and stability to the empire.
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 The Good Emperors
Following the Flavian rule until 180 CE Rome will be ruled by the
“Good Emperors”, a title used to characterize the accomplishments
of the emperors.
5 good emperors ruled in Rome for over a century.
Empire grew tremendously
It reached it limit of it’s expansion under Trajan
Expanded to present day- Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia and the
Sinai Peninsula
Trajans successor, Hadrain, felt the empire was to large and
withdrew from these eastern territories and built defensive from
Built a wall in modern day Northern Britain which was73 miles long.
Turn to page 174 to look at map
Knowledge Check Point
 How did the Julio-Claudians differ from the Flavians
 How did the Good emperors help improve Rome?
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 The Pax Romana
 The period from 27 BCE to 180 CE is known as the Pax
Romana – Roman Peace – due to the stable government,
strong legal system, increased trade, and peace during this
 From Augustus to the death of the last Good Emperor
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 Pax Romana Government
 The Roman government maintained order and stability, and
was a unifying force in the empire. The empire was divided
into provinces that were run by governors. The provincial
government was efficient and uniform. The legal system was
also uniform, in that the laws and punishments were the same
throughout the empire
 By 100 CE the supreme position of the emperor was est.
 The life and culture of Rome spread throughout the provinces
in Rome
6.2- Rome Becomes an Empire
 The Pax Romana -Legal System
Farming, manufacturing, and commerce were the primary occupations
held by most people in the empire.
Stable laws throughout the empire, applied to all citizens
 The Pax Romana -Trade and Transportation
Trade increased as a system of roads connected the empire – some
50,000 miles of road
Agriculture still the main occupation
Tenant farmers replaced the slave system
Farmers received plot of land from the estate owner and had to stay and
repay them with their time and goods
Manufacturing through the empire grew
Trade grew and was the many source for the growth of economics in
the Roman Empire