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CHAPTER 6 (P 152-182)
Roman Government
 Republic: Power rests with citizens who have
the right to vote for their leaders
 Same as the U.S.
Who has power?
 Patricians: wealthy
Portion of the population:
Power: MOST
 Plebeians: farmers,
artisans, merchants
Portion of the population:
Power: LEAST
Twelve Tables
What: Rome’s first written
law code
Established the idea that
ALL free citizens had a
right to the protection of
the law
Government Under the Republic
 Consuls: Command the army and direct the
2 serve together
1 year term
Cannot serve again for 10 years
One consul can overrule the other
Government Under the Republic
 Senate: Legislative (laws) and administrative
functions of government
Members chosen from upper class of Roman society
Great influence over foreign and domestic policy
Government Under the Republic
 Dictator: Leader with absolute power to make laws
and control the army
ONLY in times of crisis
Power lasted only 6 months
Chosen by consuls, elected by senate
Rise and Fall
Roman Republic Rises
Roman Republic Collapses
 Expanding Trade
 Economic Turmoil
 Military Conquest
 Military Upheaval
 Assimilation
Rise of Julius Caesar
 Serves as part of a
triumvirate with Pompey
(General) and Crassus
(wealthy Roman)
Triumvirate: group of 3
 Conquests in Gaul
Great hero
 Returns and claims
power as DICTATOR
Many reforms
Fall of Julius Caesar
 Fear of Caesar’s growing
power, success, and
 Senators plot his
 March 15, 44 BCE:
Caesar is stabbed to
death in the senate
The Romans
Pax Romana
 207-year period of peace and prosperity in the
Roman Empire
Empire expands
Trade increases
Culture flourishes
The Fall of Rome: Contributing Factors
 Political:
 Political office seen as a burden
 Military interference in politics
 Civil war and unrest
 Division of the empire
Emperor Diocletian- attempt to better manage the vast empire
Moving of capital to Byzantium
Emperor Constantine- Reunites the empire but chose to relocate
the capital which shifts the balance of power
The Fall of Rome: Contributing Factors
 Social:
 Decline in interest in public affairs
 Low confidence in empire
 Disloyalty, lack of patriotism, corruption
 Contrast between rich and poor
 Decline in population due to disease and food shortage
The Fall of Rome: Contributing Factors
 Economic:
 Poor harvests
 Disruption of trade
 No more war plunder
 Gold and silver drain
 Inflation
Increase in prices and fall in the value of money
Crushing tax burden
Widening gap between rich and poor
Increasingly impoverished Western Empire
The Fall of Rome: Contributing Factor
 Military:
 Threat from northern European tribes
 Low funds for defense
 Problems recruiting Roman citizens
So, recruit non-Romans to serve
Decline of patriotism and loyalty among soldiers
The Fall of Rome: Immediate Cause
 Invasion by Germanic Tribes and the Huns
Legacy of Rome: Latin Language
Legacy of Rome: Architecture
 Aqueducts
 Arches
 Domes
 Concrete
Legacy of Rome: Roads
Legacy of Rome: Law
 Right to equal treatment under the law
 Innocent until proven guilty
 Burden of proof on the accuser
 Unreasonable or unfair laws can be set aside
Fall of Rome
Rise of Christianity
 Led by: Jesus of
Nazareth & Apostles
 First followers: Jews
 Original teachings
did not contradict
Jewish Diaspora
 Romans invade Jerusalem (70 CE)
 Jewish political state ceases to exist
 Disapora = Dispersal from homeland into exile
 Roman emperor (306
CE- 324 CE)
 Edict of Milan (313
AD)- ends persecution
of Christians
 Roman Emperor (379
CE- 395 CE)
 380 CE- Makes
Christianity the
official religion of the