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The Roman Empire Gr. 7 Rome’s Beginnings Looking at the geography… Rome’s Beginnings What is a Peninsula? A piece of land surrounded on 3 sides by water. Look at Italy on a map, you will see it is surrounded on 3 sides by the Mediterranean Sea. (Also mark on your map the Med. Sea What shape does Italy look like? Let’s look at Google Earth Rome’s Beginnings Other key geographic terms… On the top of the boot, the Alps, a long mountain range that separates Italy from Europe. Would the mountain range be a good thing or a bad thing for Italy? The Strait of Messina; located between the toe of the boot and Sicily. A strait is a narrow body of water which passes between two large land masses Rome’s Beginnings The Apennines, is another mountain range which runs all the way down the boot of Italy. Unlike Greece and her mountain ranges, the mountains of Italy did not create city-states and weren’t nearly as cumbersome for people to pass for place to place. Rome’s Beginnings So how did Rome become Rome? Well, although not much is known about the people who settled Rome and Southern Italy, we can say some time between 1500 B.C.E and 1000 B.C.E., Latin speaking people had crossed into Italy and settled. A steady stream of settlers probably settled here due to the mild climate and rich soil. Interesting note here about the location of Rome, Rome’s Beginnings Tiber River is about 15 miles from Mediterranean Sea, offered protection from Naval attacks and offered trade routes to and from the Med. Sea Rome also built on 7 hills, each hill offered defensive protection. Rome also became a prosperous trade city, because one could cross the Tiber River easily. With many people crossing into and out of Rome, gold, silver, precious metals also came with it. Rome’s Beginnings Romulus and Remus is the traditional story of how Rome began. While the story is Roman, the plot will be seen in other originations of empires we will study this year. See page 264 in your textbook for the story of Romulus and Remus. Rome’s Beginnings Rome’s Beginnings Two groups of people influenced the growth of Rome: The Greeks had been settling Southern Italy and Sicily from 750 B.C.E – 550 B.C.E. Greece, still a world power, was busy building overseas colonies. Greeks taught Romans how to grow olives and grapes. Romans also adopted the Greek alphabet and would later model their architecture, sculpture and literature after the Greeks Rome’s Beginnings However the people how had a greater influence on Roman life was the Etruscans. From North of Rome, after 650 B.C.E., they moved south into Rome and took control of Rome. Were skilled metalworkers; became rich from mining and trade. Had slaves do the heaviest work, made own lives comfortable. Some famous Etruscan murals, Rome’s Beginnings Rome’s Beginnings Etruscans greatest significance to Rome; Turned Rome from a village of straw-topped homes into a city built of wood and brick buildings. Laid out streets, temples, public buildings and central squares Also influenced fashion, with the wear of short cloaks and togas Most important, the Etruscan army would serve as the model for what became the mighty Roman army, which would be the greatest fighting force the world had seen to this point The Birth of a Republic The Romans rebelled in 509 B.C.E against the ruling Etruscans. The ruling family, the Tarquins, had grown more and more cruel. With the overthrow of the Tarquins, a Republic was established. A Republic is a form of government in which the leader is not a king or queen but someone put into office by citizens with the right to vote. The Birth of a Republic Being surrounded by enemies, the Romans would spend the next 200 years or so fighting war after war against their neighbors. By 338, the Romans had conquered other Latin cities and by 267, they had conquered the Greeks in Southern Italy. Rome had control of the Italian peninsula. Take out your maps. The Birth of a Republic So how do you do this… Well you have a fighting force which is excellent. How did the Romans become such good soldiers? Your thoughts… The Birth of a Republic The Roman army… In the beginning, Romans fought like the Greeks, lining up thousands upon thousands of men, marching shoulder to shoulder, keeping their shields together with longs spears. Roman generals found this slow and hard to control, thus they created legions A legion is made up of about 6,000 men and was further divided into smaller groups of 60 – 120 soldiers. The Birth of a Republic As Rome conquered Italy, they set up permanent military settlements in areas they controlled. The Roman Confederation was created to establish rule over these areas. To make transportation easier, Romans built roads from Rome to its new territories. Let’s look at page 266 and see what a typical Roman legionary would wear… The Birth of a Republic With its new conquests, Rome did something unique; It gave full citizenship to some people, especially other Latin’s. They could vote and serve in government and were treated the same as other citizens in the eyes of the law. Allies were allowed to run their own local affairs but did have to pay a tax to Rome. Rome rewarded those allies who were friendly to Rome and sought to punish those who were not. The Birth of a Republic Rome’s generosity I suppose paid off because conquered people became more loyal to Rome than their local authorities. Rebellions were swiftly put down in done in a way to strongly discourage others from doing the same. Rome at its height Rome’s Vitals At the height of the Roman Empire, the 2nd century A.D., the Roman Empire included some 65 million people. According to sources, the Roman Legion were as big as 28 legions with approximately 4800 men per legion. Each man would serve 25 years. (This is an estimate due to the inconsistency to determine the correct definition of the legion. Some have a legion consisting up to 15,000 men.) Rome’s Vitals Rome was as big as 2.2 million square miles. The USA is 3.79 million square miles. 147 Emperors served the Roman Empire (mot a perfect number) Latin was the official language Official religion of the Roman Empire changed from a polytheistic society which religion was less a spiritual experience than a contractual relationship between mankind and the forces which were believed to control people's existence and wellbeing to one which believed in one God, in which the Pope would become more powerful than the Emperor. Life Expectancy Table For a 15-year-old to live to age 20 about 93% chance...to 25 = .93 x .92 = 86% ...to 30 = 78% ...to 35 = 69% ...to 40 = 61% ...to 45 = 52% ...to 50 = 44% ...to 55 = 34% ...to 60 = 26% ...to 65 = 17%. ..to 70 = 10% ...to 75 = 5% ...to 80 = 1.5% ...to 85 = < 1 in 200 The Fall of Rome Rich vs. Poor: While the rich or elite ran the Roman government and directed the wars, many small farmers, whom owned a plot of land to arm, were off to fight Rome’s wars. These farmers could not pay for their farms because they could not farm them. Conversely, to avoid foreclosure (losing the farm yet still having to pay for it,) these farmers, now soldiers would sell their lands. To whom do you think they sold their farms to? The Fall of Rome So know the farmer and his family were “homeless.” The people who were brought in to work the land were the now enslaved, former enemy soldiers. Legion Slaves Soldier Enemy The Fall of Rome These homeless soldiers would turn to the cities and if they could find work, it was for low wages. Thus the appeal of working for a general and having the General take care of you and the family, establishing a new home outside of Italy became so appealing. You may have actually had a situation where more nonRomans lived in Rome than Romans. The Fall of Rome The real crime was that Roman Senators would violate and break the law when it served them best to do so. When you have a government which purposely violates the very essence of what it is suppose to represent, it will fail to govern itself with any sense of guidance and prosperity. The military becomes the power and governance of the Roman Empire. Cicero Was a political leader and considered Rome’s greatest public speaker. He had argued against dictators and called for a representative government with limited powers. Cicero’s speeches and books swayed many Romans. Centuries later, his ideas would influence the writers of the United States Constitution. Fall of Rome Octavian – became to be known as Augustus Caesar. His leadership (in the spirit of Cicero) lead the way to the Pax Romana. Which is translated to “Roman Peace” Augustus did 3 things very well, 1. Stengthen the army – became a permanent army. 2. Turned Rome from a city of brick to a city of marble 3. Rebuilt the government to resemble and act as a Republic. Republic What is a Republic? a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them. 2. any body of persons viewed as a commonwealth. 3. a state in which the head of government is not a monarch or other hereditary head of state. Fall of Rome What Augustus did in each province was to promote or appoint a proconsul, or governor, for each province. Augustus was quite the watch dog – He would travel to the provinces frequently and audit each province to make sure the governor was doing his job and doing it in the best interest of the people and not themselves. Augustus also improved the tax system. He also improved the legal system. Fall of Rome When Augustus died in 14 A.D., he had reshaped Rome from a collection of provinces looking out for their own interested, to one united under a common flag and an empire working within the same system. In American History, Augustus would be Abraham Lincoln. Group work The efforts of Augustus would influence human history to this very day. Fall of Rome Writing assignment: Augustus overcame the obstacles of illness and political enemies to become a great emperor. Can you think of any present-day individuals who overcame to excel at something?