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Chapter 5b Reading Guide Pg. 104 1. In order for our body to use energy from the food we eat, it has to be converted to the molecule ATP. 2. If oxygen is present (needed), the process is called aerobic. 3. If oxygen is not present (not needed), the process is called anaerobic. 4. Write out the equation for Cell Respiration below (both the chemical formula and words). _C6H12O6_ + __O2___ ____CO2_____ + ___H2O_ + energy ( glucose) ( oxygen) ( carbon dioxide) ( water) (ATP ) 5. Whether or not oxygen is present, a molecule of _glucose_ is required for respiration. 6. glucose 2 Stages of Respiration NAD + ADP NADH ATP Stage 1 Pyruvate Anaerobic Aerobic No 02 Ethanol and CO2 or lactic acid 02 Stage 2 ATP 7. In stage 1, glucose is converted to Pyruvate and a small amount of _ATP_ and _NADH_is made. 8. In stage 2, a large amount of ATP is made if _oxygen__ is present. 9. If oxygen is present, it is called _aerobic _respiration_. 10. Where does this process occur in eukaryotic cells? mitochondrion 11. Where does this process occur in prokaryotic cells? Cell membrane 12. If oxygen is not present, either __lactate__ or _ethanol__ and _CO2_ are made. Pg. 105 13. The main fuel for respiration is _glucose__, which is formed from the breakdown of carbohydrates like starch and _sucrose_. 14. Proteins, nucleic acids, and fats can also be used if carbohydrates are not available. In fact, one gram of fat contains more energy than _two_ grams of carbohydrates. 15. The first stage of cellular respiration is called _glycolysis_. 16. In this stage, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm 17. In this stage, 2 ATP molecules are used, but 4 ATP are made which is a net gain of 2 ATP. Pg. 106 18. If oxygen is present the three steps of Aerobic respiration are: Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Outer Membrane 1. Glycolysis Matrix 2. Krebs Cycle Inner Membrane 3. Electron Transport Chain Pg. 107 19. Two electron carriers NADH and FADH 2 are made in the Krebs cycle. These electron carriers store as much energy as glucose and Pyruvate. 20. The electron carriers, NADH and FADH 2, move from the Krebs cycle to the Electron Transport Chain, the third step of aerobic respiration. 21. Where does the Electron Transport Chain occur? Across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion 22. Along with ATP, oxygen is converted to _water_ in the Electron Transport Chain. Pg. 108 23. Why does the Electron Chain not work if no oxygen is there? O2 is not there as the final e- acceptor 24. The recycling of NAD + when oxygen is not present is called _fermentation_. 25. List two types of fermentation. _Lactic Acid Fermentation and _Alcoholic Fermentation_ 26. When you exercise really hard, lactate is made in your muscle cells due to small amounts of ATP. 27. Fermentation allows glycolysis (first step of respiration) to keep making lactate in muscles. 28. Blood removes lactate from muscles; if it builds up, lactate can cause soreness in muscles. Pg. 109 29. A yeast cell is a type of _Fungus_; it uses alcoholic respiration when making food/drinks. Pg. 110 30. How many ATP molecules are made in Glycolysis? 2 Krebs Cycle? 2 Electron Transport chain?( 34 bacteria/ 32 in humans) Extra Practice 1. Write out the overall equation of cell respiration. _Glucose_ + _Oxygen___ _Water __ + __Carbon Dioxide__ + _ATP________ 2. What organelle does cell respiration occur in? ___mitochondria__________________ 3. What is the energy source that goes into cellular respiration? _Glucose____________________ 4. What energy molecule is made at the end of cellular respiration? __ATP_______________ 5. If oxygen is present respiration is called _Aerobic____________________. 6. If oxygen is not present respiration is called __ Anaerobic ___________________. 7. List the three steps of aerobic cellular respiration is the correct order. 1) _Glycolysis_____ 2) ___Krebs Cycle______3) ___Electron Transport Chain_______________ 8. Where does glycolysis occur? (be specific) _Cyctoplasm_________ 9. Where does the Krebs Cycle occur? (be specific) _matrix of mitochondrion 10. Where does the Electron Transport Chain occur? (be specific) _inner membrane of mitochondrion__ 11. Pyruvate is made in glycolysis and is shipped to the _matrix_______________ for the Krebs cycle. 12. __CO2_______ (waste) is the gas made in the Krebs cycle that we exhale when we breathe. 13. __NADH__ and ___FADH2_are two potential energy molecules made in Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle and then shipped to the ___Electron Transport Chain__________ to make more ATP. 14. How many ATP are made in glycolysis? 2 Krebs cycle? 2 Electron Transport Chain? 32 15. How many total ATP are made in aerobic respiration? _36_ This is 38% of the energy from glucose. 16. If __oxygen__ is not present then anaerobic respiration will occur. 17. List the two steps of anaerobic respiration. 1) __glycolysis____ 2) __fermentation____ 18. The first step of anaerobic respiration is ____ glycolysis ____ makes __2_ ATP. 19. There are two types of ___ fermentation ___________ (the second step of anaerobic respiration): 1) ___lactic acid____ and 2) _____alcoholic__________________. 20. In __ alcoholic _____ fermentation bacteria and yeast cells produce carbon dioxide and _alcohol___. 21. In __ lactic acid _________ fermentation muscle cells and bacteria cells produce __ lactic acid ___. 22. How many total ATP are made in anaerobic respiration? __2____ 23. This is ___2%____ of the energy from glucose. Comparison of Photosynthesis and Respiration 24. What is the relationship between the CO2 two reactions? They are opposites 25. What kind of organisms perform photosynthesis? algae, plants, some bacteriain what organelle? sunchloroplasts (cell membrane 26. What kind of organisms perform cell respiration? _All_in what organelle? _mitochondrion______ 27. What is the initial energy source of photosynthesis? _sun______ 28. What two high energy molecules are made in the light reactions of photosynthesis? _ATP, NADPH_ water CO2 29. What molecule is made in the dark reactions of photosynthesis? _Glucose____ 30. In cell respiration what energy molecule made in photosynthesis starts out the reaction? _ Glucose 31. In photosynthesis, the gas _ CO2_________ is taken in and the gas __ O2______ is given off. 32. In cell respiration, the gas _ O2_________ is taken in and the gas _ CO2_______ is given off SOL Questions:33. Which is required by all living things? a. Mobility b. energy c. oxygen d. carbon dioxide 34. Which of these processes is carried out in the same way in both plants and animals? a. Cellular respiration b. asexual reproduction c. circulation of body fluids d. excretion of wastes 35. The graph below shows how dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide levels changed in aa pond over a 24-hour period. What caused the decrease in oxygen concentration during the night? a. increased evaporation b. increased respiration c. decreased temperatures d. decreased photosynthesis 36.