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Transcript
RULES
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http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Mr-Educator-A-Social-Studies-Professional
Name_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Period _________
Rules of the Roman Republic
Government under the Republic:
The Roman Army
Each land-o wning citizen of Rome
was required to serve in the army. In
most cases ten years of milita ry
servic e were required. Roman soldiers
were organized into legions, or very
large groups of armed soldiers. Each
legion was made up of betwee n 3,000
to 6,000 heavily armed foot soldiers.
Soldiers on foot are referre d to as
part of the infant ry while soldiers on
horseback are part of the cavalr y.
Cavalr y groups suppo rted each legion .
Within each legion were smalle r
groups called centur ies; a centur y
was a group of around 100 men and
the Roman officer in charge was
called a centur ion.
In battle, a legion was only as strong
as its ability to quickly move, shift, or
rotate. If a legion could not adapt to
its oppon ent it could easily be
conqu ered. Each centur y in a legion
could act indepe ndently, and often
times when a legion would break
apart the centur ies would be forced to
disban d and regroup at a later time.
In the first century BCE, Roman writers bragged that
their city had finally achieved a balanced government. They
were referring to the perfect balance between a monarchy,
oligarchy, and direct democracy. Rome had achieved a
republic, or a government where representatives served the
needs of the people. In place of a king, Rome had two
officials called consuls. In some ways the consuls had kinglike powers, however their power was definitely limited.
Similar to kings, consuls commanded the army and directed
the city’s government. However, consul power was limited.
A consul’s term was only one year long and that same person
could not be elected consul again for ten years! Also, the two
consuls had to agree for decisions to be made; one consul
could always overrule, or veto, the other consul’s decision.
The Senate was the more distinguished branch of the
Roman government. There were 300 members in the
Senate. Early in Rome’s history, members of the Senate
were chosen from the upper class of Roman society. This
meant that only Patricians could serve in the Senate. After
the Conflict of the Orders, when the lower class (plebeians)
fled Rome and demanded more political rights, the Senate
was opened to all Roman males, either Patrician or Plebeian.
Senate membership was for life. Consuls would appoint
people to the Senate once a seat became available. This meant
that while the Consul was constantly changing, the Senate
remained firm, strong, and stable. Because of this, the Senate
had great influence over both foreign and domestic policy.
Unlike the Senate where members served for life, the
Assembly was the more democratic side of the government
and represented the views of the “common man.” The
Assembly had very little power in Rome’s early days. For
example, the Assembly could vote for laws or to go to war,
but the Senate could block their decisions. One grand power
the Assembly had was that each year they had the sole power
to choose two members of the Senate to serve as Consuls.
However, the Romans were not ready to completely
give their government to the people. In times of crisis, the
republic could appoint a dictator, or a leader who had absolute
power. This rule would have the power to make laws and
command the army. The Romans were quick though to place
limits on the dictator’s power; their term lasted for only six
months and dictators were recommended by consuls, then
approved by the senate.
©, Mr. Educator, 2013
ans:
Patrician & Plebei
struggled for
two groups of Romans
In the early republic,
ns; they made up
group was the patricia
political power. One
of the power.
s and they held most
er
wn
do
lan
te
eli
,
hy
the wealt
Members of the
called the plebeians.
The other group was
merchants. The
rmers, artisans, and
plebeian class were fa
population.
up the majority of the
de
ma
ss
cla
ian
be
ple
gave them
d that their ancestry
ime
cla
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cla
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The pa
ved they had
for Rome. They belie
s
law
ke
ma
to
y
rit
the autho
d they thought it
granted from birth an
noble status that was
important
sponsibility to make the
was their duty and re
ver were barred by
blic. Plebeians, howe
pu
re
the
r
fo
s
ion
cis
de
In time,
government positions.
nt
ta
or
imp
st
mo
ng
ldi
law from ho
government, and
y be given a “say” in
the
ed
nd
ma
de
s
ian
be
Ple
d the Tribune of
ir own assembly calle
eventually created the
the plebeians
otected the rights of
pr
ne
bu
Tri
The
.
bs
the Ple
r to veto laws.
ing the group the powe
from unfair laws by giv
Citizenship in the Roman
Republic:
The idea of the citizen changed gre
atly during the Roman Republic, and it continued to
evolve during the later Roman Empire. Once the Romans overthrew their Etruscan leaders they
created a republic and gave more power to the
people; all males over fifteen who were descend
ants from the original tribes of Rome became citiz
ens. Citizens of Rome distinguished themselves fro
m non-citizens by wearing a toga. When Rome transit
ioned into an empire, citizens wore white robes w
hile the emperor wore a purple toga to distinguish hi
mself as the princeps, or "first citizen."
Citizenship throughout Rome varied g
reatly. The full citizen could hold public office, vote on key issues, marry freeborn people, and practice b
usiness. Some citizens were not allowed to vote or
hold public office but could still practice busines
s. A third type of citizen could vote and practice bus
iness, but could not hold office or marry freeborn peo
ple. The Romans had a very unique appro
ach to how they handled the people they conque
red. Instead of ruling these people as conquered sub
jects, the Romans invited them to become citiz
ens. Rather than continuing to fight Rome, these people slowly became integrated into Roman socie
ty.
Slaves in the Roman Republic
Slaves had no rights at all in Ancient Rome;
they were thought of and treated like property.
If slaves disobeyed their masters the most
common way they would be punished is by
whipping. However, because slaves were
expensive, owners would not want to inflict
lasting damage. Other than whipping, slaves
would also be branded with a hot iron, typically
on the forehead. Another punishment was to
be branded in the forehead. If a slave
committed a capital crime, such as murder,
they were commonly crucified in public. Why
in public? To set an example for other slaves
who thought about disobeying. Eventually, the
practice of crucifixion was outlawed under
Emperor Constantine.
However, unlike in the United States,
slavery in Rome was not confined to one’s skin
color or race. In Rome, slaves were mostly
criminals and foreigners from nearby territories
that had warred with Rome. Slavery was also
treated as a form of punishment. However,
those in slavery could emerge; it was common
for slaves to be released after serving their
punishment, then they were able to become
voting citizens. In hard times, it was not
uncommon for families to sell their own
children into slavery.
public
the Roman Re
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s wife and
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reinforced this supe
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©, Mr. Educator, 2013
Name_________________________________________________________
Period ____________
Rules of the Roman Republic
1. In the early Roman Republic, which group had most of the political power? How did they claim this authority?
2. Why was the assembly the more democratic side of the government?
3. When could a dictator come to power and how long were they in power?
4. The Roman Army:
a. Define legion:
b. What is the difference between infantry and cavalry?
5. Who was a citizen in Rome?
How could a slave become a citizen?
What were the obligations and privileges of Roman citizens?
6. How was slavery different in the Roman Republic than it was in the United States? How was it similar?
7. What rules existed in the household? What rights did women have in the Roman Republic (Give examples).
©, Mr. Educator, 2013
Key
Most political power was claimed by the patricians. These were the wealthy,
landowners. They claimed authority due to their ancestry.
They represented views of the “common man.” Senators served for life and
was therefore not very democratic -- this did not happen in the assembly.
They had power to choose the consuls.
Dictators could come to power during moments of crisis. This only lasted
for 6 months, however, to avoid someone seizing complete control.
large groups of armed soldiers; made up of 3,000 to 6,000 armed soldiers;
supported by cavalry groups; contained smaller groups called centuries.
infantry fights on foot while cavalry is on horseback
all males over 15 who were descendants of original Roman tribes were made citizens; they
distinguished themselves by wearing toga. Rome also had levels of citizenship -- full citizens
had most rights whereas the lowest citizens could not hold office but could still vote.
slaves could be freed and were then considered citizens
Citizens could hold public office, vote on key issues, marry, however not all
citizens had all of these rights.
It was not based on race or skin color in Rome and slaves could become citizens; it was
similar because slaves were punished harshly and could be set free
fathers had complete authority of the household; father owned wife; wives
could be punished in any way; wives could be sold as slaves; wives cannot
own anything