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Transcript
QUANTUM NUMBERS, RULES AND INFORMATION
Sophisticated mathematics describes the quantum states of electrons. These can be symbolized by 4
quantum numbers. Each number tells us something about an electron and once all values are
described, the specific distribution of electron density in space - what we call an orbital, is defined.
Quantum
#
n
Name
Allowed Values
Primary Information
Principal Quantum
Number
Positive Integral
values: 1, 2, 3,
….
l
Angular
Momentum
Quantum Number
0, 1, 2…(n-1) for
each value of n
ml
Magnetic Quantum
Number
Spin Magnetic
Quantum Number
-l…...0…..+l
Largely defines energy of electron. As n
increases, so does its energy and radial
distance from nucleus. Higher energy
state equates to greater ease at
removing the electron.
Defines the shape of the orbital. Each
numerical value of "l" has a matching
letter designation.
value of l: 0 1 2 3
letter:
s p d f
Defines the orientation of the orbital in
space.
The electron described as if it were
spinning and therefore generating a
magnetic field. The final quantum
number limits the number of electrons
to two per orbital; one spin up and one
spin down!
ms
-1/2 or +1/2
Which of the following quantum states are allowed? If not, what's the problem???
n
2
3
4
3
2
4
0
l
1
3
2
1
0
3
2
ml
-1
0
-2
-2
0
-1
-2
ms
1/2
1/2
-1/2
1/2
-1/2
-1/4
-1/2