Download Environment and Climate Change Policy of India

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Media coverage of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Scientific opinion on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Economics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference wikipedia, lookup

Climate engineering wikipedia, lookup

Climate change mitigation wikipedia, lookup

Climate governance wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Tuvalu wikipedia, lookup

Economics of climate change mitigation wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on human health wikipedia, lookup

Climate change feedback wikipedia, lookup

German Climate Action Plan 2050 wikipedia, lookup

Surveys of scientists' views on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Carbon governance in England wikipedia, lookup

Citizens' Climate Lobby wikipedia, lookup

Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment wikipedia, lookup

Solar radiation management wikipedia, lookup

Climate change, industry and society wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in Canada wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on humans wikipedia, lookup

Climate change in the United States wikipedia, lookup

Public opinion on global warming wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and agriculture wikipedia, lookup

Effects of global warming on Australia wikipedia, lookup

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report wikipedia, lookup

Climate change and poverty wikipedia, lookup

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme wikipedia, lookup

Politics of global warming wikipedia, lookup

Low-carbon economy wikipedia, lookup

Mitigation of global warming in Australia wikipedia, lookup

Business action on climate change wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE
CHANGE POLICY OF INDIA
By
LAKSHMAN DASS AHUJA
OFFICER ON SPECIAL DUTY
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE UNION OF INDIA (NCUI)
NETWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATIVES
IN ASIA AND PACIFIC (NEDAC)
THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE
 Climate change is primarily caused by building up of
green house gases (GHG) e.g. Carbon Dioxide,
Methane, Nitrous Oxide etc. in the atmosphere.
 Global increases in carbon dioxide concentration are due
to fossil fuel, land use change and human activity
 Methane and nitrous oxide due to agriculture activity
2
THE CHALLENGE OF CLIMATE CHANGE
 Climate change is accompanied by :
High average temperature
Changed rainfall patterns
Increased severity and frequency of floods, droughts and
cyclones
Oceanic acidification
3
CLIMATE CHANGE DUE TO
 GHGs
 Transport
 Industries
 Agricultural waste decay
 By birds, animals




High yielding techniques of agriculture
Arbitrary use of natural resources
Deforestation
Reduction in pastures
 Fertility of land reduction
 Forests, flora and fauna disappearance
4
OVERALL IMPACT ON
 Livelihoods of poor in developing countries
 Availability of water
 Food production / food security
 Flooding of coastal areas
 Increased burden of vector borne and water
borne diseases
 Slows down the pace of development
5
INDIA’s VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE
 Is facing high degree of climate variability
 GDP growth is attributable to yearly variations in rainfall.
 Himalayan eco-system is now highly vulnerable
 Increases in mean sea levels will affect large populations in
peninsular and coastal India.
 Gangotri Glacier - one of the largest is retreating
 Rainfall in India may increase by 15 to 40% and annual mean
temperature by 3 to 6 degree.
 India may suffer huge losses to livelihoods.
 Agriculture sector would be most affected
6
IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE
Agriculture 4 objectives
1. Resources conservation
2. Ecologic health
3. Economic gains
4. Social and Economic parity
All are affected in varying degrees.
 Effect on production and productivity
 Production would be severely compromised
 Yields of crops like wheat, rice and pulses will go down
 Badly affects Horticulture crops
 Milk production to come down
 Fish exodus
7
IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE
 Affects food security  Major challenges for food self sufficiency and affects
global food security
 Changed precipitation – insect pressure – requires
use of more and different pesticides
8
INDIA PART OF GLOBAL REGIME
 UN Framework on Climate change 1992 to stabilise green
house gas concentration
 Bali Action Plan 2007 – long term cooperative action
 Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Conference 2009 – laid
down emission reduction targets for industrialised
countries
 Differences surfaced on several critical issues.
 Awaiting settlement in Mexico November – December
2010.
9
INDIA’s ACTIONS
ON CLIMATE CHANGE
10
India’s total Co2 emissions are about 4% of global emission.
%
USA
19.8
China
Russia
17.7
5.2
India
4.7
Japan
Germany
Canada
4.1
2.6
2.1
U.K.
South Korea
2.0
1.6
Mexico
1.5
All other Countries
Total
38.8
100
11
 Decoupling of growth of emission from economic
development- common but differential responsibilities
and respective capabilities.
 Not binding on India. Economic, social and poverty
reduction priorities. Mitigation in the context of
sustainable development and consistant with National
priorities.
 India’s per capita emission in next 20 years is going to
be less than developing countries average.
 PM – India will never allow to increase per capita
emissions to exceed that of the developing countries
 National Action Plan – maintaining a high degree of
growth and reducing their vulnerability of the impact of
climate change
12
EIGHT MISSIONS
 National Solar Mission
 National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency
 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
 National Water Mission
 National Mission for sustaining the Himalayan Eco-System
 National Mission for Green India
 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
 National Mission for Strategic Knowledge about Climate
Change.
13
 Besides, outlining 24 initiatives aimed at promoting
technologies and actions in the sectors relating to
 Energy generation
 Transport
 Renewable energy
 Disaster management
 Capacity building
 Mission integration with Ministries and State Action Plans
 India prepares periodically the National Communication that
gives inventory of green house gasses emissions etc.
14
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM
 Emission reduction
 Sustainable development
 Purchase of Carbon
 Reduction Certificates from developing countries
 India CDM potential significant part of the global market.
India has 482 CDM Projects – 23% of the world.
 Institutional Mechanism
 A Council under Prime Minister
15
CARBON TRADING
 Emission of GHGs – Co2 is the major cause of global warming and
climate change- human induced activities are spreading this
 Carbon footprint is a measure of impact that human activities have
on the environment. It is measured in units of Co2
 Reduction in emission can be achieved by industries by
 Using renewable energy and low carbon technology – wind
energy, solar cells and bio-fuels, use of bio-mass
 Adopting energy efficient technology – use of energy efficient
lamps
 Greening Efforts – planting of trees, converting waste land into
plantation areas
 Adopting recycling and use of recycled products – co-processing
waste material, agro waste like rice husk, bagasse etc.
 Teleconferencing instead of flying
 Green buildings
Results in sustainable development, cost savings,
environment sensitive market, higher profits, reduction 16in
direct risks like floods, drought and supply chain risk etc.
COPING WITH CHANGE













Coastal zone
Buildings and construction
Transport
Water supply in arid areas
Making India energy efficient
Agriculture
Bio-diversity management
Barren Land use planning
Check dams
Health
Rescue Preparedness
Insurance Aspect
Need for agriculture productivity increase, animals, fishery
and forests, need for crops which retain the fertility of soil.17
INITIATED STEPS IN AGRICULTURE
 Ministries of Agriculture and Environment have taken many
steps
 Organic farming and green agriculture are environment
friendly. This is being done.
 Green agriculture is based on integrated pest and nutrient
management crop livestock integration, use of most
appropriate and productive genetic strains and adoption of
more crop and income per drop of water technologies.
 A bio-diversity valley in Orissa is established.
18
INITIATED STEPS IN AGRICULTURE
 Generation of electricity and bio-manure through Waste
Management
 Bio-fertiliser
 Compost
 Vermiculture
 Bio-mass briquettes - Gassifier based grid power
programme - conversion of solid bio-mass (wood,
agriculture residue) into combustible gas
19
STEPS BY
COOPERATIVES
20
86th ICA DAY – JULY 2008 ON
CLIMATE CHANGE
 Cutting green house gas emission
 Carbon neutrality – agriculture and fishery cooperatives –
stress on green energy production or innovative feed to
reduce emission from livestock production
 Consumer cooperatives – carbon footprints - reduction in
stores operations, supplies, education to members
 Housing –sustainable construction material, eco-buildings
 Cooperative banks/ credit - incentives for energy efficient
technology
21
86th ICA DAY – JULY 2008 ON
CLIMATE CHANGE
 Insurance cooperatives – down premiums – more risk
coverage
 Energy cooperatives – sustainable energy through wind,
solar and bio-fuels
 Economic, social and environmental sustainability
 Cooperative assume leadership
Environment Programme
 ICA
reaffirmed
its
commitment
role
–
with
UN
sustainable
development and contributing substantially to mitigate
the effects of climate change
22
COOP CONNECT MEETING BY NCUI ON
CLIMATE CHANGE
 Community
based
and
people
centric
organisations,
eminently suited for spreading the message
 Cooperatives - hardly any dialogue with Government
 Huge infrastructure of education and training – one session
- special programme
 Care for Climate – cooperative principle
 Forestry
and
Jatorpha
Cooperatives,
Tree
Growers
Cooperatives
 IFFCO and KRIBHCO – commendable work
23
COOP CONNECT MEETING BY NCUI ON
CLIMATE CHANGE
 Showcase best practices
 Global Network
 Carbon, water, fodder, inputs and knowledge banks
 Formulate a Strategy that is environmentally, socially,
economically and politically sustainable.
 NCUI facilitation CDM
 Awareness Co2
24
 KRIBHCO, IFFCO recognised for environment protection,
energy
conservation,
tree
plantation,
bio-gas,
vermicompost. IFFCO sold carbon credit worth Rs. 400
million to Spain
 Dairy – Tree grower Cooperatives in Gujarat
 Re-cycling of milk pouches, Solar water heater, sugar-power
co-generation, efficient water treatment, recycling of effluent
water, ethanol production,
afforestation, bye-product
industries
 Cooperatives – grass root level can collect traditional
wisdom and disseminate
25
 A Community Project in 9 Tribal districts of M.P is being
taken up. Features are
 Education of rural masses
 Growing role of Gram Sabha
 Code for collective action
 Saving water
 Caring for plantations
 Fields chemical free
 Rational energy consumption
 Conservation of flora and fauna
 Information to families how to mitigate carbon emissions
 Stress on indigenous methods or modern one like bio-gas
plants, solar energy, sharing of indigenous knowledge
Such projects need to be taken up by Cooperatives
26
ECOLOGICAL CODE






Land
Energy
Water
Waste
Air
Carbon
–
-
 Awareness-
Bio-diversity enhancement
Green Energy Efficiency
Effective Waste Water Management
Waste Management
Reduce air pollutants
Cut emissions through energy efficiency
initiatives
Create awareness
27
CORPORATE SECTOR
 Involvement of communities, CSOs and Corporates
 Countering Climate Change
 Attractive incentives – task breaks
 Lower tariffs
 R and D grants
 Persuade industries to go green
 Penalties those who violate energy efficiency solutions
28
CORPORATE SECTOR
 Village watershed committees managed by communities
 Development versus Environment debate
 Coping carbon emission would slow down growth
 Growth only way out of poverty
 Need for development of clean technology
 Create awareness and share knowledge of best
practices
 Unfortunately environment is still a fringe issue
29
FOOD SECURITY AND COOPERATIVES IN
INDIA
•
•
•
•
Cooperative Societies Acts, 1904 and 1912
Movement more than 100 years old.
6 lakh cooperatives and 250 million members.
Membership consists of small and marginal farmers,
landless labourers, womenfolk, scheduled caste and
tribes, educated unemployed youth, handloom weavers,
fishermen, poultry and dairy farmers.
• Democratically managed.
• Practices
internationally
recognised
cooperative
principles.
• Played pivotal role in ushering in Green and White
Revolutions – poised for Evergreen, Blue and Yellow
Revolutions
30
SHARE OF COOPERATIVES IN NATIONAL
ECONOMY
• Agriculture Credit Disbursed
:
19%
• Fertiliser Production
:
26.3%
• Fertiliser Distribution
:
36%
• Sugar Production
:
46.6%
• Wheat Procurement
:
33.5%
• Animal Feed Production/Supply
:
50%
• Retail Fair Price Shops
:
20.3%
• Milk Procurement
:
10.5%
• Ice Cream Manufacture
:
45%
• Oil Marketed (Branded)
:
49%
31
SHARE OF COOPERATIVES IN NATIONAL
ECONOMY
• Spinning Mills Spindleage
:
10.3%
•
•
•
•
:
:
:
:
54%
23%
63.5%
18.5%
Handlooms
Fisherman
Storage Facility
Rubber Procured / Marketed
• Arecanut Processed /Marketed :
• Salt Manufactured
:
• Employment Generation
– Direct
– Self Employment
:
:
15%
7.6%
1.22 Million
15.47 Million
32
COVERAGE
• 97% of 6 lakh villages.
• 71% of rural households.
• Primary Sector - Agriculture and allied activities.
• Secondary Sector – manufacturing industries.
• Tertiary Sector – services
• Three tier structure – village, state and national
levels.
• Largest movement in the world.
33
ROLE IN FOOD SECURITY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disbursement of credit.
Distribution of input.
Mopping up of agriculture production.
Agro industries.
Supply chain (storage and cold storage).
Distribution of consumer articles.
Import and export of agriculture produce.
Non – farm sector.
Massive contribution in production, procurement and
distribution of food grains
34
IMPACT
• Farmers getting better access to credit and inputs.
• Assured remunerative price.
• Better purchasing power, increase in income and
improved standards of living.
• Social and economic transformation in the countryside.
• Potent weapon for economic upsurge and all inclusive
growth.
• Human resource development, education and training.
• Entry in new areas.
• Government recognizes role of cooperatives in national
economy and part of national cooperative policy.
35
IMPACT
•
•
•
•
•
Involvement in Bharat Nirman Programmes.
Right to food security bill in the offing.
International cooperation
Setting up of global level university.
IFFCO-TOKIO Insurance, KISSAN
SANCHAR,
Commodity Exchanges, Risk Management Services,
Non- conventional Energy, Rural Electrification,
Food Processing, IFFCO Foundation, International
Trading, Farm Forestry Cooperatives, ICTE,
Disaster Management etc. etc.
36
Thank You
37