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Download Digital Presentation The Crusades
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•1095-1096 The Peasants Crusade •1095-1099 The First Crusade •1147-1149 The Second Crusade •1189-1192 The Third Crusade •1202-1204 The Fourth Crusade •1202? 1212? The Children’s Crusade •1218-1221 The Fifth Crusade •1228-1229 The Sixth Crusade •1248-1254 The Seventh Crusade •1270-12?? The Eighth Crusade •The Ninth Crusade Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades Perhaps the greatest irony of the Crusading period is that Pope Urban II, the man who cried "Dieu Le Volt : God Wills It" , the very words that rallied men to take up the sword in the name of Christendom, died in 1099 before hearing of the success of the First Crusade to Jerusalem. Urban II was born in 1042 CE and was crowned Pope in 1088 at the age of 46. We may never know what was said by the Pope on November 27th, 1095, as the many accounts of that speech are varied. More important, however are the reasons the crusade was called in the first place. Pope Urban II’s Goals •Urban sought a reunification of the Eastern and Western Churches •To put an end to the fighting among land owners and feudal societies in Europe. By redirecting hostilities towards a common enemy, the Infidels, the Christians could fight a mutual cause. •He wanted to make safe travel routes to and from the near East, the Holy Land, as many pilgrims were traveling to the area and being killed on route. •He wanted to assert the power of the Roman Catholic Church The First Crusade! • Was originally to protect Constantinople, but became a Crusade to free Jerusalem • Jerusalem was captured on July 15, 1099 • Almost all inhabitants killed, Muslim, Jew, or Christian, their blood purified the city! • Death in the name of Religion! Does it still happen today? Massacred Jews graves at Worms, 6,000 killed! c. 1096 The Second Crusade •Led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III Holy Roman Emperor •This Crusade was in response to Muslim unification •Muslims had taken back lands to the east of Jerusalem, that the First Crusade had conquered •Both Crusader armies failed to take back any land, thus the Second Crusade failed Third Crusade/Kings Crusade • Led by Kings in EuropePhillip of France, Richard of England, Fredrick [Holy Roman Emperor], Guy of Jerusalem, Henry II of Champagne, and Geza of Hungary. • Takes place because of the Muslims recapturing Jerusalem in 1187 • Crusaders fail to retake Jerusalem and all later attempts will fail as well • Muslims control Jerusalem for the next 700+ years The Fourth Crusade • Goal was to retake Jerusalem, but soon because of greed the “Crusade” focused its attention on the Byzantine Empire [the Christian Empire that protected Europe from the Muslims, and whom the Crusades were suppose to protect] • Crusaders massacred thousands of Christians in Byzantium, looted the cities and destroyed vast amounts of cultural treasures • Seen as one of the worst Christian upon Christian tragedies in the history of the world Children’s Crusade 12?? •Very sketchy on details! Some say 1202 some say 1212 •Children from France and Germany tried unsuccessfully to travel to the Holy Land, 1,000’s died or simply disappeared. •This, supposedly, is the children’s tale the Pied Piper- A person comes to town and leads all the children away- the mice or rats in the story represent the children lost to this Crusade. Other Crusades • All Following crusades failed to regain, or hold, the Holy land, but brought knowledge of the world outside of Europe and increased trade. • The Fifth Crusade The Fifth Crusade (1216-1220) was led by the kings of Hungary and Cyprus. Its strength was wasted in Egypt, and it resulted in nothing • The Sixth Crusade The Sixth Crusade (1227-1229), headed by Frederick II of Germany, without any involvement of the Pope, Frederick negotiated, without fighting, the control of Jerusalem and surrounding lands to HIM. Although many places remained under the control of Muslims, Frederick did rule of Jerusalem for 15 years. Then Muslims drove the Europeans out again. • The Seventh Crusade The Seventh Crusade (1249-1254) was under the lead of Louis IX of France, surnamed the Saint, again without Papal involvement. Louis along with thousands of “troops” were defeated and captured in Egypt and were ransomed back to France. • The Eighth Crusade The Eighth Crusade (1270) Again the leader of the eighth crusade was King Louis IX of France. King Louis IX along with a son died of “some disease” while in Northern Africa. Charles I of the Holy Roman Empire took command, but soon signed a treaty to end fighting with nothing achieved. • The Ninth and Last Crusade The Ninth Crusade (1271 - 1272) The leader of this crusade was Prince Edward of England, afterwards King Edward I. The English prince, was more successful than King Louis IX or Charles I. Edward succeeded in capturing Nazareth, and in convincing the sultan of Egypt to agree to a treaty for trade and travel for Christians. With this event the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem came to an end (1291). Although the Kingdom of Cyprus remained a Christian stronghold until 1489, which was defended by the Knights Templar.