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Chapter 15 Evolution
Chapter 15 study guide
 Key Vocabulary:
 Adaptation
 Natural selection
 Homologous structure
 Analogous structure
 Vestigial Structure and examples(human).
 Divergent evolution
 Coevolution
 Evolution
 Fossil
 Convergent evolution
Darwin theory of
 Darwin’s ideas came from studying animals in the
Galapagos islands.
 He studied the species of finches.
 They had common ancestors
 Different beaks depending on the type of food they ate.
 Evolution occurs because of natural selection.
Darwin continued
 Wrote a book called “The origin of species” that stated
species change over time by natural selection.
Natural selection
 States that organisms with traits well suited to their
environment survive and reproduce more successfully
than organisms less suited to the same environment.
Natural resources
 If natural resources are limited, all organisms must
compete for resources.
 Population of the same species change over time to
adapt to the environment they live in.
 Example Finches on the Galapagos islands.
Figure 15.5 limbs of
 Limbs are used differently.
 They have different DNA but their nucleotides sequence
show many similarities.
 Some must have shared a common ancestor.
 Have homologous structures.
Evidence of evolution
 Similar in proteins and DNA sequence.
 Fossil record
 Homologous structure
Divergent evolution
 The accumulation of differences between population
that once formed a single population. The population
changes over time.
 Same species that have different traits, because they live
in different environment. They adapt to the environment
they live in.
 Lizards and birds
 The process in which two or more species become more
adapted over time to each other’s presence.
 Example: Plants and pollinators(Bees or birds) must have
 EX: Human and bacteria
 Cockroaches and pesticides.
Convergent evolution
 The process by which different species evolve similar
 Example: Dolphin and shark. They both have fins and
same body shape.
 Read and review the ideas of these scientists:
 Jean Baptiste Lamarke
 Charles Lyell
 Charles Darwin
 How do fossils form?
 Examples of fossils?