Chapter 15 Evolution Chapter 15 study guide Key Vocabulary: Adaptation Natural selection Homologous structure Analogous structure Vestigial Structure and examples(human). Divergent evolution Coevolution Evolution Fossil Convergent evolution Darwin theory of evolution Darwin’s ideas came from studying animals in the Galapagos islands. He studied the species of finches. They had common ancestors Different beaks depending on the type of food they ate. Evolution occurs because of natural selection. Darwin continued Wrote a book called “The origin of species” that stated species change over time by natural selection. Natural selection States that organisms with traits well suited to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than organisms less suited to the same environment. Natural resources If natural resources are limited, all organisms must compete for resources. Population of the same species change over time to adapt to the environment they live in. Example Finches on the Galapagos islands. Figure 15.5 limbs of animals Limbs are used differently. They have different DNA but their nucleotides sequence show many similarities. Some must have shared a common ancestor. Have homologous structures. Evidence of evolution Similar in proteins and DNA sequence. Fossil record Homologous structure Divergent evolution The accumulation of differences between population that once formed a single population. The population changes over time. Same species that have different traits, because they live in different environment. They adapt to the environment they live in. Lizards and birds Coevolution The process in which two or more species become more adapted over time to each other’s presence. Example: Plants and pollinators(Bees or birds) must have coevolved. EX: Human and bacteria Cockroaches and pesticides. Convergent evolution The process by which different species evolve similar traits. Example: Dolphin and shark. They both have fins and same body shape. Scientists Read and review the ideas of these scientists: Jean Baptiste Lamarke Charles Lyell Charles Darwin Questions: How do fossils form? Examples of fossils?