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Date:_____________ Period:_____
Anatomy/Physiology Unit 6 – Overview
Schedule – March 13, 2008 through May 20, 2008; Unit Exam Tue 5/20/08; Semester Final May 29-30,2008
Unit 6. Physiology Key Standards (2nd Semester)
a. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the reproductive organ system.
(CCS 9a, 9b, 9e)
b. Students will identify how pathogens such as HIV invade the body and how the immune system uses
various mechanisms to defend and protect the body. (CCS 10a, 10b, 10c, 10e)
c. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the digestive organ system,
including the function of macromolecules and their synthesis from simple precursors. (CCS 1b. 1h.
4e. 4f, 9a, 9b, 9c)
d. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the nervous organ system. (CCS
9a, 9b, 9e)
e. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the cardiovascular organ system.
(CCS 9a, 9b, 9e)
Note: The abbreviation CCS stands for California Content Standards referenced below.
California Standards Physiology
9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of
the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment. As a
basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen
and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.
b. Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the
body and the body's interactions with the environment.
Students know how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in
the body.
d. Students know the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in transmitting
electrochemical impulses.
e. Students know the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation,
thought, and response.
10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease. As a basis for understanding the human
immune response:
a. Students know the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection.
b. Students know the role of antibodies in the body's response to infection.
Students know how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases.
d. Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to
their requirements for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses against bacterial and
viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.
e. Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with
AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that are usually benign.
* Students know the roles of phagocytes, B-lymphocytes, and T-lymphocytes in
the immune system
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Textbook Chapters
14 History of Life (pg 390 – 415)
15 Evolution (pg 416-449).
Class Website –;
Resources -
Tentative Schedule
Week 1: 3/17 - 3/21 – Reproduction Unit 6 Quiz 1
Week 2: 3/24 - 3/28 Easter Break
Week 3: 3/31 - 4/4 – Unit 6 Quiz 2
Week 4: 4/7 - 4/11 – Unit 6 Quiz 3
Week 5: 4/14 - 4/18 – Unit 6 Quiz 4
Week 6: 4/21 – 4/25 - CST Review
Week 7: 4/28 – 5/2 – CST Testing
Week 8: 5/5 – 5/9 – Unit 6 Quiz 5
Week 9: 5/12 – 5/16 – Unit 6 Exam
Week 10: 5/19 – 5/23 – Semester Final Review
Week 11: 5/26 – 5/30 – Semester Final
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
From the individual cell to the total organism, each functioning unit is organized according to homeostasis, or how the body
and its parts deal with changing demands while maintaining a constant internal environment. In 1859 noted French physiologist
Claude Bernard described the difference between the internal environment of the cells and the external environment in which the
organism lives. Organisms are shielded from the variations of the external environment by the “constancy of the internal milieu.”
This “steady state” refers to the dynamic equilibrium achieved by the integrated functioning of all the parts of the organism.
American physiologist Walter Cannon called this phenomenon homeostasis, which means “standing still.” All organ systems of
the human body contribute to homeostasis so that blood and tissue constituents and values stay within a normal range. A
supportive review of the major systems of the body and of the organ components of those systems of information taught in grade
five and grade seven.
The digestive system delivers nutrients (e.g., glucose) to the circulatory system. Oxygen molecules move from the air to the
alveoli of the lungs and then to the circulatory system. From the circulatory system glucose and oxygen molecules move from
the capillaries into the cells of the body where cellular respiration occurs. During cellular respiration these molecules are
oxidized into carbon dioxide and water, and energy is trapped in the form of ATP. The gas exchange process is reversed for the
removal of carbon dioxide from its higher concentration in the cells to the circulatory system and, finally, to its elimination by
exhalation from the lungs.
The concentration of sugar in the blood is monitored, and students should know that sugar can be stored or pulled from
reserves (glycogen) in the liver and muscles to maintain a constant blood sugar level. Amino acids contained in proteins can also
serve as an energy source, but first the amino acids must be deaminated, or chemically converted, in the liver, producing
ammonia (a toxic product), which is converted to water-soluble urea and excreted by the kidneys. Teachers should emphasize
that all these chemicals are transported by the circulatory system and the cells. Organs at the final destination direct these
chemicals to their exit from the circulatory system.
As the prime coordinators of the body’s activities, the nervous and endocrine systems must be examined and their
interactive roles clearly defined. An individual becomes aware of the environment through the sense organs and other body
receptors (e.g., by allowing for touch, taste, and smell and by collecting information about temperature, light, and sound). The
body reflexively responds to external stimuli through a reflex arc. A reflex arc is the pathway along the central nervous system
where an impulse must travel to bring about a reflex; e.g., sneezing or coughing. Review the sense organs, identify other body
receptors that make humans aware of their environment, and see ways in which the body reflexively responds to an external
stimulus through a reflex arc. Hormones work in conjunction with the nervous system, as shown, for ex-ample, in the digestive
system, where insulin released from the pancreas into the blood regulates the uptake of glucose by muscle cells. The pituitary
master gland produces growth hormone for controlling height. Other pituitary hormones have specialized roles (e.g., folliclestimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH] control the gonads, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] controls the
thyroid, and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] regulates the formation of glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex). This master
gland is itself controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain.
Feedback loops are the means through which the nervous system uses the endocrine system to regulate body conditions.
The presence or absence of hormones in blood brought to the brain by the circulatory system will trigger an attempt to regulate
conditions in the body. The hormone leptin, is used to illustrate the relevance of feedback loops. Leptin is produced by fat cells
as they become filled with storage reserves. Leptin is carried by the blood to the brain, where it normally acts to inhibit the
appetite center, an example of negative feedback. When fat reserves diminish, the concentration of leptin decreases, a
phenomenon that in turn causes the appetite center in the brain to start the hunger stimulus and activate the urge to eat.
Transmission of nerve impulses involves an electrochemical “action potential” generated by gated ion channels in the
membrane that make use of the countervailing gradients of sodium and potassium ions across the membrane. Potassium ion
concentration is high inside cells and low outside; sodium ion concentration is the opposite. The sodium and potassium ion
concentration gradients are restored by an active transport system, a pump that exchanges sodium and potassium ions across
the membrane and uses ATP hydrolysis as a source of free energy. The release of neurotransmitter chemicals from the axon
terminal at the synapse may initiate an action potential in an adjacent neuron, propagating the impulse to a new cell.
The pathways of impulses from dendrite to cell body to axon of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons link the
chains of events that occur in a reflex action. You should be able to diagram this pathway. Similar paths of neural connections
lead to the brain, where the sensations become conscious and conscious actions are initiated in response to external stimuli.
You should also be able to identify gray and white matter in the central nervous system.
Some bacteria, parasites, and viruses cause human diseases because they either rob the body of necessary sustenance
or secrete toxins that cause injury. The human body has a variety of mechanisms to interfere with or destroy invading pathogens.
Besides protection afforded by the skin, one of the most effective means of defending against agents that harm the body is the
immune system with its cellular and chemical defenses. A clear understanding of the components of the immune system and
knowledge of how vaccines and antibiotics are used to combat disease is needed to understand why certain medical procedures
are necessary. You should also know that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) compromises the immune system,
causing affected persons to succumb to other AIDS-associated infections that are harmless to people with an intact immune
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
The skin serves as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of many disease-causing microorganisms. Cuts and
abrasions compromise the skin’s ability to act as a barrier. Dangers and physiologic responses occur with a break in the skin.
Cells produce antibodies to oppose antigens, substances that are foreign to the body. An example of an antigen is a surface
protein of a flu virus, a protein with a shape and structure unlike those of any human proteins. The immune system recognizes
that the flu virus structure is different and generates proteins called antibodies that bind to the flu virus. Antibodies can inactivate
pathogens directly or signal immune cells that pathogens are present.
Several weeks are required before the immune system develops immunity to a new antigen. To overcome this problem,
vaccinations safely give the body a look in advance at the foreign structures. Vaccines usually contain either weakened or killed
pathogens that are responsible for a specific infectious disease, or they may contain a purified protein or subunit from the
pathogen. Although the vaccine does not cause an infectious disease, the antigens in the mixture prompt the body to generate
antibodies to oppose the pathogen. When the individual is exposed to the pathogenic agent, perhaps years later, the body still
remembers having seen the antigens in the vaccine dose and can respond quickly. You have been exposed to the practical
aspects of immunization through your knowledge of the vaccinations you must receive before you can enter school. You have all
experienced getting shots and may have seen your personal vaccination record in which dates and kinds of inoculations are
Early literature provides descriptions of vaccine use from pragmatic exposure, but the term vaccine is derived from the
cowpox exudate that Edward Jenner used during the 1700s to inoculate villagers against the more pathogenic smallpox. Louis
Pasteur, noted for his discovery of the rabies treatment, also developed several vaccines. Poliovirus, the cause of infantile
paralysis (poliomyelitis), was finally conquered in the 1950s through vaccines that Jonas Salk and Albert B. Sabin refined. A
virus, which is the simplest form of a genetic entity, is incapable of metabolic life and reproduction outside the cells of other living
organisms. A virus contains genetic material but has no ribosomes. Although some viruses are benign, many harm their host
organism by destroying or altering its cell structures. Generally, the body perceives viruses as antigens and produces antibodies
to counteract the virus. Bacteria are organisms with a full cellular structure. They, too, can be benign or harmful. Harmful
bacteria and their toxins are perceived as antigens by the body, which in turn produces antibodies. In some cases infectious
diseases may be treated effectively with antiseptics, which are chemicals that oxidize or in other ways inactivate the infecting
organism. Antiseptics are also useful in decontaminating surfaces with which the body may come in contact (e.g., countertops).
Antibiotics are effective in treating bacterial infections, sometimes working by destroying or interfering with the growth of
bacterial cell walls or the functioning of cell wall physiology or by inhibiting bacterial synthesis of DNA, RNA, or proteins.
Antibiotics are ineffective in treating viral infections.
You will learn about infections caused by protists (malaria, amoebic dysentery), bacteria (blood poisoning, botulism, food
poisoning, tuberculosis), and viruses (rabies, colds, influenza, AIDS). A brief review will occur of the dangers of common bacteria
becoming resistant to antibiotics through long-standing over-application, as shown by the increasing incidence of drug-resistant
tuberculosis and other bacteria.
When an immune system is compromised (e.g., through infection by the human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), it becomes
either unable to recognize a dangerous antigen or incapable of mounting an appropriate defense. This situation happens when
the virus infects and destroys key cells in the immune system.
reproductive organ system
In higher animals, ova are produced by female gonads (sexual glands) called ovaries and
all of them are present at birth in mammals, and mature via oogenesis
pathogens such as HIV invade the body and how the immune system
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Describe and explain the structures and functions of the digestive organ system, including the
function of macromolecules and their synthesis from simple precursors.
Structures and functions of the nervous organ system.
Structures and functions of the cardiovascular organ system.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
1. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) The name of the late stages of HIV infection;
defined by a specified reduction of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary
2. Alveoli - 1) One of the deadend, multilobed air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of
the lungs. (2) One of the milk-secreting sacs of epithelial tissue in the mammary glands.
3. Amino acid - An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve
as the monomers of proteins.
4. Antibiotics - A chemical that kills bacteria or inhibits their growth.
5. Antibodies - An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the
effector in an immune response.
6. Antigen - A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and that elicits an
immune response.
7. Aorta - The major artery in blood-circulating systems; sends blood to the other body tissues
from the heart; contains oxygenated blood.
8. Arteries - A vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body.
9. Arteriole - A very small artery.
10. Axon - A typically long extension, or process, from a neuron that carries nerve impulses away
from the cell body toward target cells.
11. Axon terminal The axon terminal contains synapses, specialized structures where
neurotransmitter chemicals are released in order to communicate with target neurons.
12. Bacteria - prokaryotic microorganism in Domain Bacteria.
13. Bile A yellow secretion of the vertebrate liver, temporarily stored in the gallbladder and
composed of organic salts that emulsify fats in the small intestine.
14. Blood - A type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which blood cells are
15. Bone marrow (or medulla ossea) - is the soft tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In
adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells.
16. Brain stemThe hindbrain and midbrain of the vertebrate central nervous system. In humans, it
forms a cap on the anterior end of the spinal cord, extending to about the middle of the brain.
17. Cancer___________________________________________________________________
18. Capillaries - A microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues and consists of a single layer
of endothelial cells that allows exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid.
19. Cardiovascular system
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
20. Cerebellum - Part of the vertebrate hindbrain (rhombencephalon) located dorsally; functions in
unconscious coordination of movement and balance.
21. Cerebrum - The dorsal portion, composed of right and left hemispheres, of the vertebrate
forebrain; the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex
functions of the central nervous system.
22. Cervix (from Latin "neck") - is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the
top end of the vagina.
23. Chemo receptor - A receptor that transmits information about the total solute concentration in
a solution or about individual kinds of molecules.
24. Cholesterol - A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a
precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
25. Dendrites - One of usually numerous, short, highly branched processes of a neuron that conveys
nerve impulses toward the cell body.
26. Digestive system - The primary function is to convert food into energy and convert waste into
excretable material. The digestive tract and its accompanying digestive organs are responsible
for the absorption and digestion of all digestible products.
27. Disease a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal
functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms
28. Egg - A female gamete, which usually contains abundant cytoplasm and yolk; nonmotile and often
larger than a male gamete.____________________________
29. Embryo - A developing stage of multicellular organisms; in humans, the stage in the development
of offspring from the first division of the zygote until body structures begin to appear; about
the ninth week of gestation. ____________________________
30. Endocrine - The internal system of chemical communication involving hormones, the ductless
glands that secrete hormones, and the molecular receptors on or in target cells that respond to
hormones; functions in concert with the nervous system to effect internal regulation and
maintain homeostasis.____________________________
31. Epididymous- structure on top of each testis where sperm mature and are stored. A long coiled
tube into which sperm pass from the testis and are stored until mature and ejaculated.
32. Erythrocyte - A red blood cell; contains hemoglobin, which functions in transporting oxygen in
the circulatory system.
33. Estrogen - The primary female steroid sex hormones, which are produced in the ovary by the
developing follicle during the first half of the cycle and in smaller quantities by the corpus
luteum during the second half. Estrogens stimulate the development and maintenance of the
female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
34. Fatty Acid - A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and
location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
35. Fallopian tube (oviduct) - A tube passing from the ovary to the vagina in invertebrates or to the
uterus in vertebrates.
36. Fertilization - The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
37. Fetus - An unborn or unhatched vertebrate that has passed through the earliest developmental
stages; a developing human from about the second month of gestation until birth.
38. Gland - A structure composed of modified epithelial cells specialized to produce one or more
secretions that are discharged to the outside of the gland.
39. Helper T-cell - A type of T cell that is required by some B cells to help them make antibodies or
that helps other T cells respond to antigens or secrete lymphokines or interleukins.
40. Histamine - A substance released by mast cells that causes blood vessels to dilate during an
inflammatory response.
41. HIV - Abbreviation of human immunodeficiency virus, the infectious agent that causes AIDS;
HIV is an RNA retrovirus.
42. Homeostasis - The steady-state physiological condition of the body – maintaining conditions.
43. Hormones - One of many types of circulating chemical signals in all multicellular organisms that
are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and coordinate the various parts of the
organism by interacting with target cells.
44. Hypothalamus - The ventral part of the vertebrate forebrain; functions in maintaining
homeostasis, especially in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems; secretes hormones of
the posterior pituitary and releasing factors, which regulate the anterior pituitary.
45. Immune system___________________________________________________________
46. Immunity, active___________________________________________________________
47. Immunity, passive___________________________________________________________
48. Insulin - A vertebrate hormone that lowers blood glucose levels by promoting the uptake of
glucose by most body cells and the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver; also stimulates
protein and fat synthesis; secreted by endocrine cells of the pancreas called islets of
49. Interneurons - An association neuron; a nerve cell within the central nervous system that forms
synapses with sensory and motor neurons and integrates sensory input and motor output.
50. Killer T-cell - kill the body's own cells that have been invaded by the viruses or bacteria. This
prevents the bug from reproducing in the cell and then infecting other cells.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
51. Leukocytes - A white blood cell; typically functions in immunity, such as phagocytosis or antibody
52. Lungs - The invaginated respiratory surfaces of terrestrial vertebrates, land snails, and spiders
that connect to the atmosphere by narrow tubes.
53. Lymphocyte - A white blood cell. The lymphocytes that complete their development in the bone
marrow are called B cells, and those that mature in the thymus are called T cells.
54. Medulla oblongata_ The medulla oblongata controls autonomic functions, and relays nerve signals
between the brain and spinal cord. It is also responsible for controlling several major points and
autonomic functions of the body: respiration (via dorsal respiratory group and ventral
respiratory group); blood pressure; swallowing; vomiting; defecation. It is the lower portion of
the brainstem. It deals with autonomic functions. The cardiac center is the part of the medulla
oblongata responsible for controlling the heart rate.
55. Menstruation -menstrual cycle, the monthly reproductive cycle that helps prepare the human
female body for pregnancy; involves the shedding of blood, tissue fluid, mucus, and epithelial
cells if an egg is not fertilized.
56. Myelin shealth - In a neuron, an insulating coat of cell membrane from Schwann cells that is
interrupted by nodes of Ranvier where saltatory conduction occurs.
57. Motor neurons - A nerve cell that transmits signals from the brain or spinal cord to muscles or
58. Mucus_ is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. It is a viscous
colloid containing antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozyme) and immunoglobulins. Mucus is produced
by goblet cells in the mucous membranes that cover the surfaces of the membranes. It is made
up of mucins and inorganic salts suspended in water. Phlegm is a type of mucus that is restricted
to the respiratory tract, while the term mucus refers to secretions of the nasal passages as well.
59. Nerve - A ropelike bundle of neuron fibers (axons and dendrites) tightly wrapped in connective
60. Neuron - A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and
properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its
cell membrane.
61. Nervous system - All the nerve cells of an animal; the receptor-conductor-effector system; in
humans, the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and
the peripheral nervous system.
62. Olfactory – having to do with the sense of smell, called olfaction, involves the detection and
perception of chemicals floating in the air. Chemical molecules enter the nose and dissolve in
mucous within a membrane called the olfactory epithelium. In humans, the olfactory epithelium is
located about 7 cm up and into the nose from the nostrils. The olfactory tract transmits the
signals to the brain to areas such as the olfactory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
hypothalamus. Many of these brain areas are part of the limbic system. The limbic system is
involved with emotional behavior and memory. The electrical activity produced in these hair cells
is transmitted to the olfactory bulb.
63. Ovary - In flowers, the portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop. In animals,
the structure that produces female gametes and reproductive hormones.
64. Ovulation - The release of an egg from ovaries. In humans, an ovarian follicle releases an egg
during each menstrual cycle.
65. ovule - A structure that develops in the plant ovary and contains the female gametophyte.Ovum The female gamete; the haploid, unfertilized egg, which is usually a relatively large, nonmotile
66. Pathogen (Gk. pathos, suffering + genos, origin, descent) An organism or a virus that causes
67. Penis - the male organ of copulation
68. Peristalsis - Rhythmic waves of contraction of smooth muscle that push food along the digestive
69. Plasma - The liquid matrix of blood in which the cells are suspended.
70. Platelets - A small enucleated blood cell important in blood clotting; derived from large cells in
the bone marrow.
71. Peptide - The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by condensation synthesis.
72. Polypeptide - A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
73. Progesterone - A steroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary; maintains the
uterine lining during pregnancy.
74. Protein - A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different
monomers called amino acids.
75. Reproductive system The reproductive system is a system of organs within an organism which
work together for the purpose of reproduction. The major organs of the human reproductive
system include the external genitalia (penis and vulva) as well as a number of internal organs
including the gamete producing gonads (testicles and ovaries).
76. Scrotum - The sac (pouch) that contains the testes, blood vessels, and part of the spermatic
cord. It is located behind the penis.
77. Semen - fluid that contains sperm, nourishment, and other fluids of the male reproductive
system. The fluid that is ejaculated by the male during orgasm; contains sperm and secretions
from several glands of the male reproductive tract.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
78. Seminal fluid - The thick, whitish secretion of the male reproductive organs. It is composed of
spermatozoa in their nutrient plasma, secretions from the prostate, seminal vesicles, and various
other glands, epithelial cells, and minor constituents.
79. Seminiferous Tubule- tubule of the testis in which sperm develop.
80. Sensory neurons - nerve cell that receives information from the internal and external
environments and transmits the signals to the central nervous system
81. Sperm - A male gamete.
82. Synapses - The locus where one neuron communicates with another neuron in a neural pathway; a
narrow gap between a synaptic terminal of an axon and a signal-receiving portion (dendrite or cell
body) of another neuron or effector cell. Neurotransmitter molecules released by synaptic
terminals diffuse across the synapse, relaying messages to the dendrite or effector.
83. Testes - The male reproductive organ, or gonad, in which sperm and reproductive hormones are
84. Testosterone - The most abundant androgen (produced in the adrenal gland) hormone in the male
body which stimulate the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and secondary sex
85. Thalamus - One of two integrating centers of the vertebrate forebrain. Neurons with cell bodies
in the thalamus relay neural input to specific areas in the cerebral cortex and regulate what
information goes to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus also plays an important role in regulating
states of sleep and wakefulness. Many different functions are linked to the system to which
thalamic parts belong. This is at first the case for sensory systems (which excepts the olfactory
function) auditory, somatic, visceral, gustatory and visual systems where localized lesions
provoke particular sensory deficits.
86. Urethra - tube that conducts semen and urine out of the body through the penis in males and
transports urine out of the body in females.
87. Uterus -A female reproductive organ where eggs are fertilized and/or development of the young
88. Vaccination - the administration of antigenic material (the Vaccine) to produce immunity to a
disease. Vaccines can prevent or decrease the effects of infection by a pathogen. It is
considered to be the most effective and cost effective method of preventing infectious
89. Vaccine - A harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen that stimulates a host's immune system
to mount defenses against the pathogen.
90. Vagina - Part of the female reproductive system between the uterus and the outside opening;
the birth canal in mammals; also accommodates the male's penis and receives sperm during
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
91. Vas Deferens - duct through which sperm move away from the testis and toward the urethra.
The tube in the male reproductive system in which sperm travel from the epididymis to the
92. Vena cava - A large vein that brings blood from the tissues to the right atrium of the fourchambered mammalian heart. The superior vena cava collects blood from the forelimbs, head, and
anterior or upper trunk; the inferior vena cava collects blood from the posterior body region.
93. Venule - A very small vein. A vessel that returns blood to the heart.
94. Virus - A submicroscopic, noncellular particle composed of a nucleic acid core and a protein coat
(capsid); parasitic; reproduces only within a host cell.__
95. Zygote The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conception; a fertilized egg.
96. Abdominal cavity_ The cavity within the abdomen, the space between the abdominal wall and the
spine. It contains a number of crucial organs including the lower part of the esophagus, the
stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and bladder.
97. Catalyst is the process by which the rate of a chemical reaction (or biological process) is
increased by means of the addition of a species known as a catalyst to the reaction. What makes
a catalyst different from a chemical reagent is that whilst it participates in the reaction, is not
consumed in the reaction.
98. Feedback systems - is a process whereby some proportion of the output signal of a system is
passed (fed back) to the input. This is often used to control the dynamic behavior of the system.
99. Follicle-are the basic unit of female reproductive biology and are composed of a roughly spherical
aggregations of cells found in the ovary. They contain a single oocyte (aka ovum or egg). These
structures are periodically initiated to grow and develop, culminating in ovulation of usually a
single competent oocyte.
100. Infection - the establishment of a pathogen in its host after invasion
102. Photo receptor__ a photosensitive cell, most commonly referring to a specialized type of
neuron found in the retina of vertebrate eyes that is capable of phototransduction Visual
phototransduction is a process by which light is converted into electrical signals in the rod cells,
cone cells and photosensitive ganglion cells of the retina of the eye.
103. Pulsations - rhythmical throbbing or vibrating (as of an artery);
Structures and Functions of Male and Female Reproductive Organs
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Structures and Functions of the Digestive System
Structures and Functions of the nervous
organ system.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic
nervous system (ANS). The PNS is not protected by bone, leaving it exposed to injury, unlike the central
nervous system, which is made of the brain and spinal cord, to serve the limbs and organs.
By function, the peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system , autonomic
nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The somatic nervous system is responsible for
coordinating the body movements, and also for receiving external stimuli. It is the system that regulates
activities that are under conscious control. The autonomic nervous system is then split into the
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
sympathetic division, parasympathetic division, and enteric division. The sympathetic nervous system
responds to impending danger or stress, and is responsible for the increase of one's heartbeat and blood
pressure, among other physiological changes, along with the sense of excitement one feels due to the
increase of adrenaline in the system. The parasympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, is evident
when a person is resting and feels relaxed, and is responsible for such things as the constriction of the
pupil, the slowing of the heart, the dilation of the blood vessels, and the stimulation of the digestive and
genitourinary systems. The role of the enteric nervous system is to manage every aspect of digestion,
from the esophagus to the stomach, small intestine and colon.
Positioned between the hindbrain and the forebrain, the midbrain forms part of the brainstem and
connects the brainstem to the forebrain. The midbrain is responsible for controlling sensory processes.
Structures and Functions of the cardiovascular organ system.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Anatomy/ Physiology Study Guide
1. Describe the correct path of sperm through the male reproductive system.
Testes Epididymis  Vas deferens  Urethra
2. Fertilization occurs in the Fallopian tube, and implantation occurs in the uterus
3. The male parent produces sex cells called sperm.
4. The testes make sperm and testosterone.
5. The temperature in the scrotum is the same or different than body temperature? Explain.
Different – In the scrotum it is 1-3 degrees cooler than in the body.
6. A healthy adult male produces several hundred million sperm each day.
7. In the female reproductive system, the ovaries produce(s) the eggs.
8. During ovulation, an egg is released when a follicle ruptures.
9. Which hormone causes the final preparation of the uterus to receive the embryo and inhibits
initiation of the next menstrual cycle? progesterone
10. Within which structure in the picture does fertilization
normally occur and what is this structure called?
#1 – Fallopian tube aka oviduct
#2 – Uterus wall
#3 –Uterus
#4 – Cervex
#5 – Umbilical Cord
#6 – Placenta
#7 –Amniotic sac and fluid
11. The nose is protected from pathogens by mucus
12. What are the major structures of the immune system? Skin, white blood cells and lymph nodes
13. Antibodies are produced by B cells.
Disease can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and genetic disorder.
After a virus is trapped by mucus in the nose, it is usually destroyed in the stomach
Transplanted organs that are rejected by the new body are destroyed by killer T cells.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
The part of the pathogen that is remembered by the immune system is the antigen.
The HIV virus attacks helper T cells.
What is the function of the immune system? Protect against bacteria and viruses
An organism develops active immunity as a result of producing antibodies in response to a vaccination,
ifection, or allergy.
Cholesterol, sex hormones and large amounts of stored energy are examples of what type of
macromolecule? lipids
Proteins differ from each other by the kinds of amino acids, the number of amino acids, and the shape
and folding of the protein.
What are some characteristics of enzymes?
(a) Enzymes work best at a specified pH,
(b) Enzymes are proteins,
(c) Enzymes are organic catalysts,
(d) Enzymes form a temporary association with
a reactant,
(e) Enzymes are specific because of their shape
and catalyze only certain reactions
What are some characteristics of nucleic acids? (a) DNA stores genetic information, (b) Found in the
nucleus, (c) Made up of nucleotides
Although there are a limited number of amino acids, many different types of proteins exist
because the sequence and number of amino acids is different.
26. The wave of muscular contraction that pushes food through the esophagus and intestines is
called peristalsis
A digestive function of organ F is the synthesis and secretion
of ______________________ A digestive function of organ F
(liver) is the synthesis and secretion of bile
28. The principal function of structure X i large intestine) is to absorb
To remove the pancreas, a surgeon would have to
enter which cavity? abdominal
What are the receptors for smelling called?
Olfactory cells
Which part of the brain regulates blood
pressure? Medulla oblongata
Specialized cells called neurons transfer messages
throughout your body in the form of fast-moving
electrical energy.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Examine the illustration of a neuron below and answer the questions that follow.
33. The structures labeled A are called axon terminals. The axon is the main conducting unit of the
neuron, capable of conveying electrical signals along distances that range from as short as 0.1
mm to as long as 2 m.
34. The structures labeled B are called myelin sheaths. The myelin sheath of a neuron consists of
fat-containing cells that insulate the axon from electrical activity. This insulation acts to
increase the rate of transmission of signals. A gap exists between each myelin sheath cell along
the axon. Since fat inhibits the propagation of electricity, the signals jump from one gap to the
next. The myelin sheath (a tubular case or envelope) gives the whitish appearance to the white
matter of the brain.
35. The structures labeled C are called the cell body (soma) The cell body is the factory of the
neuron. It produces all the proteins for the dendrites, axons and synaptic terminals and
contains specialized organelles such as the mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic
reticulum, secretory granules, ribosomes and polysomes to provide energy and make the parts,
as well as a production line to assemble the parts into completed products.
36. The structures labeled D are called dendrites. These structures branch out in treelike fashion
and serve as the main apparatus for receiving signals from other nerve cells. They function as
an "antennae" of the neuron and are covered by thousands of synapses.
37. From a neuron's cell body, information is transmitted to other cells by a fiber called a(n) axon.
38. Special neurons called motor neurons send impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles.
39. The part of your brain that connects to your spinal cord is called the medulla.
The cerebrum primarily controls activities such as speaking, reading, writing, and solving
Where are blood cells made? In the bones
What prevents blood from flowing backward in veins? valves
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
The close arrangement of alveoli and capillaries allows oxygen to diffuse from the alveoli into the
The cardiovascular system is made up of which organs? Heart, blood and blood vessels
Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in your body.
46. When you exercise, your heart beats faster because muscles require much more oxygen.
47. Which part of human blood is primarily responsible for transporting nutrients, hormones and
wastes? plasma
48. To determine heart rate, a student should count the pulsations per minute in an artery.
49. What sequence represents the normal pathway of blood?
B D H  G  F
50. How would you best describe the blood pumped from the structure labeled E?
(right ventricle)? It is deoxygenated and will be transported to the lungs.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview