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SG Social PSI
Study Guide / Social Psychology
Social Psychology: The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to other people.
Attribution Theory: (Fritz Heider) The theory that we tend to explain other people's behavior in terms of the situation
or in terms of their dispositions (personality).
Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency, when analyzing another person's behavior, to underestimate the
importance of the situation and overestimate the importance of personal dispositions.
Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon: The tendency for people who agree to a small request to agree to a larger one later
Role Playing: The strong effects of "playing a role" were demonstrated by Phillip Zimbardo's prison study in which
college students were assigned the roles of prisoners or guards. The study was called off after only 6 days.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when 2 of our
thoughts (cognitions) or a thought and an action are inconsistent. When our actions and attitudes clash, we can reduce
the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Process by which our beliefs or attitudes about another person causes that person to behave
in a way which only confirms our beliefs.
Conformity: Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
In a set of famous studies conducted by Solomon Asch (where subjects were asked to judge the length of lines), it was
found that subjects would conform when the rest of the group was wrong in their judgments about 1/3 of the time. It
was found that conformity would increase if:
a) The group has status or is admired
b) The group consists of at least 3 people
c) The group is unanimous
d) The group is observing and is aware of your behavior
e) You have made no prior commitments
f) You feel incompetent of insecure
g) Your culture encourages conformity
Normative Social Influence: Conforming to obtain approval or avoid disapproval (conforming simply to "fit in").
Informational Social Influence: Conforming because of a willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
(conforming because we believe others' "know more" than we do).
Obedience: Behavior in response to a command from another person, usually an authority figure.
*In a set of famous studies by Stanley Milgram, it was found that 67% of the subjects (called teachers) would "shock"
"learners" (who were really confederates) until apparent death simply by being told to do so by the researcher. The
level of obedience could be increased to almost 100% if:
a) The person giving orders was in close proximity to the "teacher" & was perceived as a legitimate authority figure.
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b) The authority figure seemed to be from a prestigious institution (such as Yale)
c) The "learner" (the confederate victim) was not in close proximity to the teacher (e.g., in another room)
d) No other subjects were observed disobeying the orders of the authority figure
***Milgram's studies had a huge impact on "ethics" in experimental research.
Social Facilitation: Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks
but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
Social Loafing: The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts.
Deindividuation: Due to a sense of anonymity and high arousal, a loss of self-restraint sometimes seen in a group (i.e.,
mob behavior).
Group Polarization: The enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes following discussion within the group.
Groupthink: The form of unrealistic thinking that can occur in a cohesive group when a desire for harmony within the
group overrides logical and realistic thinking.
Prejudice: An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice typically involves
stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition toward discriminatory behavior.
Stereotype: A generalized (sometimes accurate, but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
Scapegoat Theory: The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame for your (or
your society's) problems.
Ingroup: "Us"--the people with whom we share a common identity.
Outgroup: "Them"--those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.
Ingroup Bias: The tendency to favor one's own group.
The Just-World Phenomenon: The tendency for people to believe that the world is fair and just and therefore, people
get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Biological Influences:
Neural Influences: amygdala stimulation; diminished activity in the frontal lobes
Biochemical Influences: testosterone; alcohol
Psychological Influences:
Violence in the media: movies, TV, video games
"Learned" violence at home
Frustration-aggression Principle: When an attempt to achieve a goal is blocked, frustration is created. This, in turns
creates anger, which can generate aggression.
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1. Proximity: Simple "geographical nearness" may be the most powerful predictor of friendship and attraction to
others. It helps create The mere-exposure effect: repeated exposure to a novel stimulus increases our "liking" of that
2. Physical Attractiveness: Studies reveal that our 1st impressions of people are based on their level of physical
attractiveness. While there are many cultural differences in what is deemed attractive, men are attracted to "youthful"
women and women are attracted to "mature, dominant, and affluent" men.
3. Similarity: We tend to be attracted to people who are similar to us in beliefs, attitudes, interests, attractiveness level,
etc. In truth, "opposites do not attract".
Love: The premiere researcher in this area is Elaine Hatfield.
Passionate Love: An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a
relationship (also typical of adolescent love).
Companionate Love: The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our live are intertwined.
It involves:
Equity: A person feels they receive as much from the relationship as they put into it.
Self-disclosure: Ability to reveal intimate feelings and aspects about oneself to others.
A total unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Social Exchange Theory: The goal of our social behavior is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Reciprocity Norm: Through socialization, we learn that we should help, not harm, others----and they may someday
help us.
Bystander Effect (or Diffusion of Responsibility): The tendency for a person to be less likely to give aid in an
emergency if other bystanders are present. (We are MORE likely to help if we are not in a hurry, we are in a good mood,
we have seen someone else being helpful, we feel the victim deserves help, we feel the victim is somehow similar to us).
Overview of Social psych
People to know: Asch, Milgram, Zimbardo, Festinger
Why did 65 percent of Milgrim’s subjects go to the end of the voltage meter?
Why did psychologists predict only .12% would go that far?
How does this apply to:
Hitler’s Germany?
David Koresh’s Branch Davidians?
Jim Jones Kool-Aid guzzlers?
Lindy England?
The difference between Milgrim and the others is the surrounding. With Milgram, there was only one other
person in the room. With the others, individuals were part of an overall group. Does that make a difference?
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In all cases, the leader/authority figure maintained direct contact constantly. Does that make a difference?
Where do we learn to obey? Does it vary from person to person?
Even if something “feels” wrong, how do we justify it?
Cognitive dissonance – modifying beliefs to make us more “comfortable” with questionable behavior.
For the Milgrim study, it came down to “responsibility”. Once the researcher took responsibility for any harm,
the subjects seemed more comfortable.
How does this apply in our world?
It sometimes leads to Counterattitudinal behavior – when we say we believe one thing in public, but we
internally feel different.
Sometimes, it can be authentic, as with the Self-Perception Theory – “looking in the mirror” and not liking
what we see, so we change our beliefs and/or behavior.
Self-perception works well when someone is not interacting with others. But, group behavior can be radically
The researcher in the Milgrim study used a Central route for persuasion – that is, he focused on facts and
logic to attain the desired behavior. What were these?
Group leaders tend to use a Peripheral route for persuasion – one which focuses on emotional appeal,
personality and positive regard for the group at hand.
Koresh and Jones used this. Did Hitler? Could it be argued he used both?
SOCIAL ROLES -- Zimbardo's Stanford Prison study -- people not only understand but accept roles of both
authority and helplessness in our society.
CONFORMITY – behavior performed because of group pressure, even if not from a direct request.
Once leaders persuade a few followers, how does it spread?
SOLOMON ASCH – Studies on conformity showed that people (75%) went along with the majority opinion,
even if it went against their own beliefs.
Is it a cultural concept? Is there a gender issue?
** INDIVIDUALISM vs. COLLECTIVISM – In the U.S., we put more focus on individual success, whereas in
African communities, the concept of the “greater group good” is more appropriate.
People in these areas are more likely to be ALTRUISTIC – willing to behave in a way in which others benefit
and there are no personal rewards.
In both Asch and Miligram’s studies, women are more likely to obey and/or conform, especially if the leader is
male. Why?
What else may affect our behavior in group settings?
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**** GROUP POLARIZATION – When we are around others who have the same attitudes we have, it tends to
strengthen our beliefs. That explains behaviors of historical groups such as:
Ku Klux Klan
Radical Republicans
 Tammany Hall
Black Panthers
Why do groups exist?
Social comparative theory – We are driven to compare ourselves to others similar to us and
Festinger argues this leads to joining groups, though the cognitive process is thought out and
meaningful, not on a whim.
Social Facilitation – We perform better in the presence of a group.
The need to feel needed and part of something – and there you go, why we have gangs is
apparent, right?
MOB MENTALITY -- What happened at that Pistons/Pacers game?
Deindividuation – tendency for subjects to perform or behave irrationally when there is less chance
of being recognized. Other examples????
FINALLY … why did you get that bad grade on your last group project?
Groupthink – Irving Janis says that people worry more about agreeing that getting a problem solved correctly.
How can this be a bad thing in a jury room as well?
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Name: __________________________ Date: _____________
___ 1. Professor Washington's students did very poorly on the last exam. The tendency to make
the fundamental attribution error might lead her to conclude that the class did poorly
A the test was unfair.
B) not enough time was given for students to complete the test.
C) students were distracted by some social function on campus.
D students were unmotivated.
___ 2. Which theory describes how we explain others' behavior as being due to internal
dispositions or external situations?
A) social exchange theory
B) reward theory
C) two-factor theory
D) attribution
___ 3. When male students in an experiment were told that a woman to whom they would be
speaking had been instructed to act in a friendly or unfriendly way, most of them
subsequently attributed her behavior to:
A the situation.
C) her personal disposition.
B) the situation and her personal
D their own skill or lack of skill in a
social situation.
___ 4. Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor's actions as
an act of aggression and its own actions as self-defense. Evidently, these nations are
victims of:
A) the self-fulfilling prophecy.
B) groupthink.
C) the self-serving bias.
D) the
fundamental attribution error.
___ 5. Which of the following is true?
A Attitudes and actions rarely correspond.
C) Attitudes are excellent predictors of
B) Attitudes predict behavior about half the D Attitudes predict behavior under certain
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___ 6. Which of the following is an example of the foot-in-the-door phenomenon?
A To persuade a customer to buy a product, a store owner offers a small gift.
B) After agreeing to wear a small “Enforce Recycling” lapel pin, a woman agrees to collect
signatures on a petition to make recycling required by law.
C) After offering to sell a car at a ridiculously low price, a car salesperson is forced to tell
the customer the car will cost $1000 more.
D All of the above are examples.
___ 7. Which of the following situations should produce the greatest cognitive dissonance?
A A soldier is forced to carry out orders he finds disagreeable.
B) A student who loves animals has to dissect a cat in order to pass biology.
C) As part of an experiment, a subject is directed to deliver electric shocks to another
D A student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally disagrees with.
___ 8. According to cognitive dissonance theory, dissonance is most likely to occur when:
A a person's behavior is not based on strongly held attitudes.
B) two people have conflicting attitudes and find themselves in disagreement.
C) an individual does something that is personally disagreeable.
D an individual is coerced into doing something that he or she does not want to do.
___ 9. Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it.
Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by:
A) attribution theory.
B) cognitive dissonance theory.
C) social exchange theory.
D) evolutionary psychology.
___ 10. Conformity increased under which of the following conditions in Asch's studies of
A The group had three or more people.
C) Individuals were made to feel insecure.
B) The group had high status.
D All of the above increased conformity.
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___ 11. Subjects in Asch's line-judgment experiment conformed to the group standard when their
judgments were observed by others but not when they were made in private. This tendency
to conform in public demonstrates:
A) social facilitation.
B) overjustification.
C) informational social influence.
normative social influence.
___ 12. Which of the following is important in promoting conformity in individuals?
A whether an individual's behavior will be observed by others in the group
B) whether the individual is male or female
C) the size of the room in which a group is meeting
D whether the individual is of a higher status than other group members
___ 13. Maria recently heard a speech calling for a ban on aerosol sprays that endanger the
earth's ozone layer. Maria's subsequent decision to stop using aerosol sprays is an example
A) informational social influence.
B) normative social influence.
D) social facilitation.
___ 14. José is the one student member on the college board of trustees. At the board's first
meeting, José wants to disagree with the others on several issues but in each case decides
to say nothing. Studies on conformity suggest all except one of the following are factors in
José's not speaking up. Which one is not a factor?
A The board is a large group.
B) The board is prestigious and most of its members are well known.
C) The board members are already aware that José and the student body disagree with
them on these issues.
D Because this is the first meeting José has attended, he feels insecure and not fully
___ 15. In his study of obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of subjects:
A refused to shock the learner even once.
B) complied with the experiment until the “learner” first indicated pain.
C) complied with the experiment until the “learner” began screaming in agony.
D complied with all the demands of the experiment.
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___ 16. Based on findings from Milgram's obedience studies, participants would be less likely to
follow the experimenter's orders when:
A they heard the “learner” cry out in pain.
B) they merely administered the test while someone else delivered the shocks.
C) the “learner” was an older person or mentioned having some physical problem.
D they saw another subject disobey instructions.
___ 17. Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?
A Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a
destructive process.
B) Most people are able, under the proper circumstances, to suppress their natural
C) The need to be accepted by others is a powerful motivating force.
D All of the above conclusions were reached.
___ 18. Which of the following would most likely be subject to social facilitation?
A proofreading a page for spelling errors
C) playing a difficult piece on a musical
B) typing a letter with accuracy
D running quickly around a track
___ 19. Which of the following most accurately states the effects of crowding on behavior?
A Crowding makes people irritable.
B) Crowding sometimes intensifies people's reactions.
C) Crowding promotes altruistic behavior.
D Crowding usually weakens the intensity of people's reactions.
___ 20. The phenomenon in which individuals lose their identity and relinquish normal
restraints when they are part of a group is called:
A) groupthink.
B) cognitive dissonance.
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C) empathy.
D) deindividuation.
Social PSI SG Review
___ 21. Which of the following statements is true?
A Groups are almost never swayed by minority opinions.
B) Group polarization is most likely to occur when group members frequently disagree
with one another.
C) Groupthink provides the consensus needed for effective decision making.
D A group that is like-minded will probably not change its opinions through discussion.
___ 22. Jane and Sandy were best friends as freshmen. Jane joined a sorority; Sandy didn't. By
the end of their senior year, they found that they had less in common with each other
than with the other members of their respective circles of friends. Which of the following
phenomena most likely explains their feelings?
A) group polarization
B) groupthink
C) deindividuation
D) social facilitation
___ 23. Which of the following is most likely to promote groupthink?
A The group's leader fails to take a firm stance on an issue.
B) A minority faction holds to its position.
C) The group consults with various experts.
D Group polarization is evident.
___ 24. Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of personal control and
social control of our behavior?
A Situational influences on behavior generally are much greater than personal
B) Situational influences on behavior generally are slightly greater than personal
C) Personal influences on behavior generally are much greater than situational
D Situational and personal influences interact in determining our behavior.
___ 25. Research has found that for a minority to succeed in swaying a majority, the minority
A make up a sizable portion of the group.
B) express its position as consistently as possible.
C) express its position in the most extreme terms possible.
D be able to convince a key leader of the majority.
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___ 26. Alexis believes that all male athletes are self-centered and sexist. Her beliefs are an
example of:
A) ingroup bias.
B) groupthink.
C) stereotypes.
D) the fundamental attribution
___ 27. (Close-Up) Which of the following is an example of implicit prejudice?
A Jake, who is white, gives higher evaluations to essays he believes to be written by
black students than to white-authored essays.
B) Carol believes that white people are arrogant.
C) Brad earns more than Jane, despite having the same job skills, performance level, and
D In certain countries, women are not allowed to drive.
___ 28. People with power and status may become prejudiced because:
A they tend to justify the social inequalities between themselves and others.
B) those with less status and power tend to resent them.
C) those with less status and power appear less capable.
D they feel proud and are boastful of their achievements.
___ 29. Which of the following was not mentioned in the text discussion of the roots of prejudice?
A people's tendency to overestimate the similarity of people within groups
B) people's tendency to assume that exceptional, or especially memorable, individuals are
unlike the majority of members of a group
C) people's tendency to assume that the world is just and that people get what they deserve
D people's tendency to discriminate against those they view as “outsiders”
___ 30. Students at State University are convinced that their school is better than any other; this
most directly illustrates:
A) an ingroup bias.
B) prejudice and discrimination.
the just-world phenomenon.
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C) the scapegoat effect.
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___ 31. Given the tendency of people to categorize information according to preformed schemas,
which of the following stereotypes would Juan, a 65-year-old political liberal and
fitness enthusiast, be most likely to have?
A “People who exercise regularly are very extraverted.”
B) “All political liberals are advocates of a reduced defense budget.”
C) “Young people today have no sense of responsibility.”
D “Older people are lazy.”
___ 32. We tend to perceive the members of an ingroup as ________ and the members of an outgroup
as ________.
A similar to one another; different from
C) above average in ability; below average
one another
in ability
B) different from one another; similar to
one another
D below average in ability; above average
in ability
___ 33. Ever since their cabin lost the camp softball competition, the campers have become
increasingly hostile toward one camper in their cabin, blaming her for every problem in
the cabin. This behavior is best explained in terms of:
A) the ingroup bias.
B) prejudice.
C) the scapegoat theory.
D) the reciprocity
___ 34. The belief that those who suffer deserve their fate is expressed in the:
A just-world phenomenon.
C) fundamental attribution error.
B) phenomenon of ingroup bias.
D mirror-image perception principle.
___ 35. Aggression is defined as behavior that:
A hurts another person.
C) is hostile, passionate, and produces
physical injury.
B) is intended to hurt another person.
D has all of the above characteristics.
___ 36. Which of the following is true about aggression?
A It varies too much to be instinctive in
C) It is instinctive but shaped by learning.
B) It is just one instinct among many.
D It is the most important human instinct.
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___ 37. Research studies have found a positive correlation between aggressive tendencies in
animals and levels of the hormone:
A) estrogen.
B) adrenaline.
C) noradrenaline.
D) testosterone.
___ 38. Regarding the influence of alcohol and testosterone on aggressive behavior, which of the
following is true?
A Consumption of alcohol increases aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone reduce
aggressive behavior.
B) Consumption of alcohol reduces aggressive behavior; injections of testosterone increase
aggressive behavior.
C) Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both promote aggressive behavior.
D Consumption of alcohol and injections of testosterone both reduce aggressive behavior.
___ 39. After waiting in line for an hour to buy concert tickets, Teresa is told that the concert is
sold out. In her anger she pounds her fist on the ticket counter, frightening the clerk.
Teresa's behavior is best explained by:
A evolutionary psychology.
C) social exchange theory.
B) the reciprocity norm.
D the frustration-aggression principle.
___ 40. Research studies have shown that frequent exposure to sexually explicit films:
A makes a woman's friendliness seem more
C) may lead individuals to devalue their
B) diminishes the attitude that rape is a
serious crime.
D may produce all of the above effects.
___ 41. Research studies have indicated that the tendency of viewers to misperceive normal
sexuality, devalue their partners, and trivialize rape is:
A increased by exposure to pornography.
B) not changed after exposure to pornography.
C) decreased in men by exposure to pornography.
D decreased in both men and women by exposure to pornography.
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___ 42. Most researchers agree that:
A media violence is a factor in aggressive behavior.
B) there is a negative correlation between media violence and aggressiveness.
C) paradoxically, watching excessive pornography ultimately diminishes an individual's
aggressive tendencies.
D media violence is too unreal to promote aggression in viewers.
___ 43. Social traps are situations in which:
A conflicting parties realize that they have shared goals, the attainment of which
requires their mutual cooperation.
B) conflicting parties have similar, and generally negative, views of one another.
C) conflicting parties each pursue their self-interests and become caught in mutually
destructive behavior.
D two conflicting groups meet face-to-face in an effort to resolve their differences.
___ 44. Mr. and Mrs. Samuels are constantly fighting, and each perceives the other as hardheaded and insensitive. Their conflict is being fueled by:
A) self-disclosure.
B) stereotypes.
C) a social trap.
D) mirror-image perceptions.
___ 45. Which of the following factors is the most powerful predictor of friendship?
A similarity in age
C) similarity in physical attractiveness
B) common racial and religious background D physical proximity
___ 46. Most people prefer mirror-image photographs of their faces. This is best explained by:
A the principle of equity.
C) the mere exposure effect.
B) the principle of self-disclosure.
D mirror-image perceptions.
___ 47. The mere exposure effect demonstrates that:
A familiarity breeds contempt.
C) birds of a feather flock together.
B) opposites attract.
D familiarity breeds fondness.
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___ 48. Ahmed and Monique are on a blind date. Which of the following will probably be most
influential in determining whether they like each other?
A) their personalities
B) their beliefs
C) their social skills
D) their physical
___ 49. Having read the chapter, which of the following is best borne out by research on
A Birds of a feather flock together.
C) Familiarity breeds contempt.
B) Opposites attract.
D Absence makes the heart grow fonder.
___ 50. Opening her mail, Joan discovers a romantic greeting card from her boyfriend. According
to the two-factor theory, she is likely to feel the most intense romantic feelings if, prior to
reading the card, she has just:
A completed her daily run.
B) finished reading a chapter in her psychology textbook.
C) awakened from a nap.
D finished eating lunch.
___ 51. In one experiment, college men were physically aroused and then introduced to an
attractive woman. Compared to men who had not been aroused, these men:
A reported more positive feelings toward the woman.
B) reported more negative feelings toward the woman.
C) were ambiguous about their feelings toward the woman.
D were more likely to feel that the woman was “out of their league” in terms of
___ 52. The deep affection that is felt in long-lasting relationships is called ________ love; this
feeling is fostered in relationships in which ________.
A passionate; there is equity between the
C) companionate; there is equity between
the partners
B) passionate; traditional roles are
D companionate; traditional roles are
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___ 53. Research studies indicate that in an emergency situation the presence of others often:
A prevents people from even noticing the situation.
B) prevents people from interpreting an unusual event as an emergency.
C) prevents people from assuming responsibility for assisting.
D leads to all of the above.
___ 54. Increasing the number of people who are present during an emergency tends to:
A increase the likelihood that people will cooperate in rendering assistance.
B) decrease the empathy that people feel for the victim.
C) increase the role that social norms governing helping will play.
D decrease the likelihood that anyone will help.
___ 55. Which of the following is associated with an increased tendency on the part of a
bystander to offer help in an emergency situation?
A being in a good mood
B) having recently needed help and not received it
C) observing someone as he or she refuses to offer help
D being a female
___ 56. According to social exchange theory, a person's tendency toward altruistic behavior is
based on:
A a determination of the relatedness of those who will be affected.
B) a cost-benefit analysis of any action.
C) social norms.
D all of the above.
___ 57. After Sandy helped Jack move into his new apartment, Jack felt obligated to help Sandy
when she moved. Jack's sense of responsibility can best be explained by:
A) evolutionary psychology.
B) two-factor theory.
D) the reciprocity norm.
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C) the social responsibility norm.
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___ 58. Driving home from work, Althea saw a car run off the road and burst into flames. Althea
stopped her car, ran to the burning vehicle, and managed to pull the elderly driver to
safety before the car exploded. Althea's behavior can best be explained by:
A) the social responsibility norm.
B) the reciprocity norm.
C) two-factor theory.
D) reward theory.
___ 59. Which of the following strategies would be most likely to foster positive feelings between
two conflicting groups?
A Take steps to reduce the likelihood of social traps.
B) Separate the groups so that tensions diminish.
C) Increase the amount of contact between the two conflicting groups.
D Have the groups work on a superordinate goal.
___ 60. Which of the following best describes how GRIT works?
A The fact that two sides in a conflict have great respect for the other's strengths prevents
further escalation of the problem.
B) The two sides engage in a series of reciprocated conciliatory acts.
C) The two sides agree to have their differences settled by a neutral, third-party mediator.
D The two sides engage in cooperation in those areas in which shared goals are possible.
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Answer Key
1. D
2. D
3. C
4. D
5. D
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. D
11. D
12. A
13. A
14. C
15. D
16. D
17. A
18. D
19. B
20. D
21. D
22. A
23. D
24. D
25. B
26. C
27. A
28. A
29. B
30. A
31. C
32. B
33. C
34. A
35. B
36. A
37. D
38. C
39. D
40. D
41. A
42. A
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Social PSI SG Review
43. C
44. D
45. D
46. C
47. D
48. D
49. A
50. A
51. A
52. C
53. D
54. D
55. A
56. B
57. D
58. A
59. D
60. B
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