PAY 210 - Developmental Psychology - review questions for exam 2 Fall 08 The purpose of these review questions is to give students an idea how the professor formulates his questions and is not meant as an exhaustive review sheet. Students can be tested on everything discussed in class and the assigned reading even if it was not discussed in class. However, these review questions will help you very much in preparing you for the exam. Only multiple choice questions will be on the exam. Good luck. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question (ignore the numbering of the questions). ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. All human babies, regardless of which culture they live in or which language is spoken around them, begin to babble at about the same age. This is an example of a. species heredity. b. natural selection. c. mutation. d. recessive genetics. 2. Which statement is TRUE? a. Genes consist of thousands of chromosomes. b. Chromosomes consist of thousands of genes. c. Ovum consist of thousands of eggs. d. Eggs consist of thousands of ovum. 3. Which letters represent the four basic units of the genetic code? a. A, C, G, T b. C, G, P, T c. A, F, G, P d. F, G, P, T 4. What determines the chromosomal sex of a child? a. random chance b. an X chromosome carried by the mother c. an X or Y chromosome carried by the mother d. an X or Y chromosome carried by the father 5. A human trait is influenced by a single pair of genes with "T" representing the dominant gene and "t" representing the recessive gene. Joe (genotype Tt) and Meg (genotype Tt) decide to have children. According to the principles of Mendelian heredity, what percentage of their children would exhibit the trait? a. 25 b. 50 c. 75 d. 100 6. During his groundbreaking genetic work with peas, Gregor Mendel found that recessive characteristics a. were uncommon in pea plants. b. appeared less often in later generations. c. resulted in very smooth peas. d. increased in frequency within a few generations. 7. Olive has very green eyes, while her husband Skye has very blue eyes. Interestingly, their son's eyes appear to be a mix of both green and blue. The eye color of their child best exemplifies the concept of a. incomplete dominance. b. mutation. c. polygenic inheritance. d. codominance. 8. ____ traits always involve multiple pairs of genes. a. Recessive ____ 9. ____ 10. ____ 11. ____ 12. ____ 13. ____ 14. ____ 15. ____ 16. b. Polygenetic c. Dominant d. Incomplete Which disorder appears to have arisen as a mutation that protected people from the effects of malaria? a. fragile X syndrome b. cystic fibrosis c. sickle-cell disease d. Down syndrome Individuals with chromosomal abnormalities have fewer or more than the usual ____ pairs of chromosomes. a. 22 b. 23 c. 24 d. 25 Tony and Tina can tell at birth that something is wrong with their son. Genetic tests indicate that the child has an extra chromosome in its cells and that chromosome is a sex chromosome. Which of the following does the child have? a. Klinefelter syndrome b. Down syndrome c. Hemophilia d. Turner syndrome A individual inheriting ____ would have the SHORTEST life expectancy. a. Turner syndrome b. Tay-Sachs disease c. Huntington's disease d. Klinefelter syndrome Tony and Tina are both carriers of the same defective gene for a genetic disorder. As knowledgeable individuals they know that each time they have a child there is a ____ risk that child will be a carrier for the disorder. a. 25% b. 50% c. 75% d. 100% Which disorder tends to strike in middle age and results in deterioration of the nervous system? a. Klinefelter syndrome b. Tay-Sachs disease c. Turner syndrome d. Huntington's disease Which one of the following sets of data would show a strong genetic influence on the development of a trait? a. Identical twins raised together score more similarly to one another than identical twins raised apart. b. Fraternal twins raised apart score as similarly to one another as do biological siblings who are raised together. c. Identical twins raised apart score more similarly to one another than fraternal twins raised together. d. Fraternal twins raised together score more similarly to one another than fraternal twins raised apart. If genes ALONE contributed to a trait, which of the following patterns of correlations would be observed? a. 1.00 for identical twins raised-together but a lower correlation for those raised-apart b. 1.00 for both identical and fraternal twin pairs raised-together, but a lower correlation for those pairs raised apart c. 1.00 for identical twins and .50 for fraternal twins raised-together and raised-apart d. no significant correlation between identical twins or fraternal twins, regardless of whether they are raised together or apart ____ 17. Chucky's parents both have "shy" genes that make them uncomfortable in social situations. As a result they seldom have people over and when they do they act very nervous. Which sort of genetic/environmental is BEST illustrated in this example? a. active genotype/environment b. evocative genotype/environment c. passive genotype/environment d. negative genotype/environment ____ 18. José is quite knowledgeable about ARTs, thus when he is informed that his friend's new baby was conceived in a petri dish, he knows that this process had to involve a. in vitro fertilization. b. artificial insemination. c. a donor egg. d. multiple births. ____ 19. Which happens during the germinal period of pregnancy? a. All the major body organs develop in primitive form b. The placental relationship is established c. The zygote divides to form the blastocyst d. The chorion and amnion develop ____ 20. The formation of a primitive heart would take place during the ____ period of development. a. zygotic b. germinal c. fetal d. embryonic ____ 21. The tiny rootlike extensions called villi that help nourish the embryo are located on the a. amnion. b. chorion. c. umbilical cord. d. blastocyst. ____ 22. The male internal reproductive system develops in response to the secretion of ____ by the testes. a. estrogen b. teratogen c. surfactant d. testosterone ____ 23. The ____ period of prenatal develop begins about 9 weeks after conception. a. zygotic b. embryonic c. fetal d. prenatal ____ 24. Brain cell differentiation is highly influenced by neural a. proliferation. b. migration. c. size. d. weight. ____ 25. Neurons that have not yet become specialized are called ____ cells. a. glial b. myelin c. stem d. renal ____ 26. The point at which a fetus has the possibility to survive outside the womb is referred to as the "age of ____." a. survivability b. infant states c. resilience d. viability ____ 27. Which teratogen would most likely result in a baby being born with a missing limb? ____ 28. ____ 29. ____ 30. ____ 31. ____ 32. a. thalidomide b. alcohol c. rubella d. syphilis A child with fetal alcohol syndrome will MOST LIKELY a. be blind or deaf. b. have a small head, widely spaced eyes, and a flattened nose. c. have a heart defects. d. be born missing limbs. Holly's newborn appears malnourished, has respiratory problems, and is showing withdrawal-like symptoms. Given this description, Holly MOST LIKELY ____ while she was pregnant. a. contracted syphilis b. abused alcohol c. contracted HIV d. abused cocaine Rubella is a form of a. sexually transmitted disease. b. measles. c. surfactant. d. pox. The AIDS virus CANNOT be contracted a. at conception through a chromosomal abnormality. b. during the prenatal period, when the HIV virus crosses the placental barrier. c. during the birth process, when maternal and fetal blood may mix. d. following birth, through breastfeeding. Which is NOT a possible complication of anoxia? a. cerebral palsy b. delayed motor development c. mental retardation d. a malformed heart True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. ____ 38. Species heredity is very important to our understanding of individual differences in human growth and development. ____ 39. Some genes aid in adaptation more than others. ____ 40. Genes are made up of chromosomes. ____ 41. The process of mitosis results in daughter cells that have half the number of cells as the original one. ____ 42. Fraternal twins are no more alike genetically than brothers and sisters born at different times. ____ 43. Phenotype represents the characteristics expressed by an individual. ____ 44. A polygenetic effect is due to the actions of a single pair of genes. ____ 45. A typical child with Down syndrome will have cells with 47 chromosomes. ____ 46. An individual with Turner's syndrome has one X chromosome and no Y chromosome. ____ 47. If both parents are carriers of a particular recessive genetic disorder, all their children will exhibit that disorder. ____ 48. An individual with Huntington's disease will typically die before reaching adolescence. ____ 49. The heritability of IQ scores appears to increase between infancy and adulthood. ____ 50. Concerning mental illness, people appear to inherit a predisposition for a disorder, not that the actual disorder. ____ 51. In an active gene/environment interaction, children's genetically-based traits provoke a certain kind of reaction from their environment. ____ 52. The process of meiosis results in the development of cells that have half the number of cells as the original one. ____ 53. In cases of incomplete dominance a dominant trait is expressed but its recessive counterpart is not expressed. ____ 54. If Marty has an XXY chromosome pattern, he would be accurately diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome. ____ 55. If genes completely determined a characteristic then the correlation for that characteristic would be +1.00 for identical twins raise apart. ____ 56. In vitro fertilization takes place in a petri dish. ____ 57. The germinal stage of development occurs from the third to the eighth week after conception.