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Transcript
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Psychology and Methods of
Research
MODULE 1.1 FOUNDATIONS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY
LECTURE OUTLINE
Refer to the Concept Web at the end of this manual for a visual synopsis of all concepts presented
in this module.
I.
II.
Origins of Psychology
A. Difficult to assign clear beginning
B. “Psychology” derived from Greek psyche (mind) and logos (study)
C. Philosophers of the classical period of ancient Greece
1. Socrates (469–399 B.C.)
2. Plato (428–348 B.C.)
3. Aristotle (384–332 B.C.)
D. Philosopher Confucius (572–479 B.C.) wrote influential essays about human nature
E. Gustav Theodor Fechner—German physiologist (1801–1887)
F. Hermann von Helmholtz—German physiologist (1821–1894)
G. Wilhelm Wundt—German scientist (1832–1920) usually credited with founding
psychology as an independent science
H. See Figure 1.1 for a timeline of the early days in psychology
Major Schools of Psychology
A. Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener and structuralism
1. Introspection—careful self-examination and reporting of one’s conscious
experience LB 1.1
2. Structuralism was trying to define the structure of the mind by breaking down
mental experiences into their components
3. The first American to work in Wundt’s laboratory was the psychologist G.
Stanley Hall (1844–1924), who established first psychology lab in the United
States
B. William James (1842–1910) and functionalism
1. Although he used introspection, he shifted the focus to the functions of behavior
2. James was influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution
3. James studied the “stream of consciousness,” the continuous current of thoughts
that seem to flow endlessly through our awareness or consciousness like a river
or stream LB 1.2
C. John Watson (1878–1958) and behaviorism
1. Psychology should limit itself to the study of overt behavior that observers could
record and measure
2. Believed environment molds behavior
3.
Followers of behaviorism include Skinner (1904–1990) who studied how
behavior was shaped by rewards and punishments
4. Studied animal learning and applied principles to human behavior
D. Max Wertheimer (1888–1943) and Gestalt psychology
1. How the brain organizes and structures perceptions of the world
2. The whole is greater than the sum of the parts, Figure 1.2 LB 1.3
E. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and psychoanalysis
1. Freud’s psychology focused not only on the mind, but also on a region of the
mind that lay beyond the reach of ordinary consciousness—the unconscious
2. Unconscious is the repository of primitive sexual and aggressive drives or
instincts, wishes, impulses, and urges
3. Early childhood experiences play a determining role in shaping our personalities
and behavior
4. Psychoanalysis using methods such as dream analysis and “talk therapy” to help
people overcome problems
III. Contemporary Perspectives in Psychology (Concept Chart 1.1)
A. Behavioral perspective—focus on observable behavior
1. Social-cognitive perspective—behavior influenced by cognition as well as
environment
2. Behavior therapy—application of learning principles to therapeutic setting
B. Psychodynamic perspective
1. Places less emphasis on sex and aggression drives than Freud
2. Has had a broad impact on our culture
C. Humanistic perspective: Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) and Carl Rogers (1902–1987)
1. Believed that free will and conscious choice are essentials of the human
experience
2. Emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and becoming an authentic person
by being true to oneself
D. Physiological perspective
1. Relations between biological process and behavior
2. Emphasizes the roles of heredity, hormones, the nervous system, and
evolutionary psychology
E. Evolutionary perspective
1. Modern movement to apply Darwin’s theory of evolution to psychology and the
study of behavior
2. Believes that behavioral tendencies are shaped by the process of natural selection
F. Cognitive perspective LB 1.4
1. Studies mental processes—how we learn—for concepts, solving problems, and
making decisions
G. Sociocultural perspective LB 1.5
1. How behaviors and attitudes are shaped by the social and cultural influences to
which people are exposed
2. Examines the influence of ethnicity, gender, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, and
culture
3. Increasing diversity of contemporary society
a) Altered how we think about race and ethnicity
b) Increasing trends toward multiethnic and multiracial identification
c) Need for broader, more diverse research samples
MODULE 1.2 PSYCHOLOGISTS: WHO THEY ARE AND
WHAT THEY DO LECTURE OUTLINE
Refer to the Concept Web at the end of this manual for a visual synopsis of all concepts presented
in this module.
I.
II.
Specialty Areas of Psychology (Concept Chart 1.2) LB 1.6
A. Experimental psychologists
1. Comparative—study animal behavior
2. Physiological/Biological—study biological bases of behavior
B. Clinical psychologists
C. Counseling psychologists
D. School psychologists
E. Educational psychologists
F. Developmental psychologists
G. Personality psychologists
H. Social psychologists
I.
Environmental psychologists
J.
Industrial/Organizational psychologists
K. Health psychologists
L. Consumer psychologists
M. Emerging specialty areas
1. Neuropsychologists
2. Geropsychologists
3. Forensic psychologists
4. Sport psychologists
Professional Psychology: Becoming More Diverse
A. Women and minority members faced difficult obstacles in pursuing careers in
psychology in the early days of the profession (Figure 1.8)
1. Christine Ladd-Franklin
2. Mary Whiton Calkins
3. Mary Floy Washburn
4. Gilbert Haven Jones
5. Francis Sumner
6. J. Henry Alston
7. Kenneth Clark
B. Today psychology is much more diverse in terms of gender and ethnicity, although
people of color are still underrepresented in professional psychology
MODULE 1.3 RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY
LECTURE OUTLINE
Refer to the Concept Web at the end of this manual for a visual synopsis of all concepts presented
in this module.
I.
The Objectives of Science: To Describe, Explain, Predict, and Control
II.
The Scientific Method: How We Know What We Know (see Reality Check, LB 1.7)
A. Figure 1.9 shows the steps used by scientists LB 1.8
III. Research Methods: How We Learn What We Know (Concept Chart 1.3)
A. The case study method
B. The survey method
C. The naturalistic observation method LB 1.9
D. The correlational method LB 1.10
E. The experimental method LB 1.11 and 1.12
IV. Ethical Principles in Psychological Research
A. Psychologists engaged in research must follow ethical guidelines that are designed to
protect the welfare of research participants
B. Psychologists must maintain confidentiality of the records of research participants and
the clients they treat by respecting their rights to privacy
C. See Exploring Psychology—Anatomy of a Research Study: The Shooter Bias LB 1.13
MODULE 1.4 APPLICATION: BECOMING A CRITICAL
THINKER LECTURE OUTLINE
Refer to the Concept Web at the end of this manual for a visual synopsis of all concepts presented
in this module.
I.
II.
Features of Critical Thinking LB 1.14 and LB 1.15
Thinking Critically About Online Information