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The scope of German art in the 20th century is marked by the development of artist
associations like the Brücke (1905), the Deutscher Werkbund (1907) and the Blaue Reiter
(1911). These associations gathered different kinds of artists, architects, musicians, painters,
craftsmen.. The Neue Sachlichkeit (1925) and the Bauhaus (1926) are further vanguard art
movements that still have influence on arts, architecture and painting, despite being suppressed
and forbidden during the Nazi-regime in Germany and branded as “abnormal” art.
Jorg Immendorff (1945-2007 A.D.) is one of Germany’s best-known 20th century painters
among Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke and Anselm Kiefer. His most important work is both
political and historical in subject and holds elements of Abstract Expressionism, Surrealism and
Dadaism. His style of Abstract Expressionism is not unusual for the period in Germany and was
clearly influenced by the earlier work of Markus Lupertz and Georg Baselitz. His historical
paintings show influence from Anselm Kiefer. From early in his work Immendorff had political
and neo-Dadaistic tendencies, which helped lead to an exclusion from the Art Academy
Dusseldorf in 1969.
The political tendencies of his work increased throughout the 1970’s and he stayed close to
politicians such as Gerhard Schroder of whom he painted a large portrait. It is the prediction of
the reunification of East and West Germany in his series entitled Cafe Deutschland produced
throughout the 1970’s and 80’s, which makes his work important as representative of Germany
during this period. It is Immendorff’s portrayal of the reunification of Germany, one of the most
important parts of late century German history, which make his work distinctively important.
By the 20th century Greek artists felt the influence of the Impressionists, and attention turned
from the Munich schools to those of Paris. Greek landscapes became the main focus of study,
with a particular emphasis on the light and colours of Greece. Significant representatives of this
period are Konstantinos Parthenis, Konstantinos Maleas, Nikiphoros Lytras and Georgios
The period of the 1930’s saw an attempt by Greek painters to associate European trends to
Greek culture and tradition. This can be seen in the work of Yiannis Tsarouchis, Yiannis
Moralis, Nikos Hadjikyriakos-Ghikas, Spyros Vassileiou, Alekos Kontopoulos.
Spyros Papaloukas and Alekos Kontopoulos in particular, are credited with introducing the
abstract into Greek works. The second half of the century produced numerous Greek artists of
international acclaim including Constantine Andreou, the sculptor Thodoros Papadimitriou, the
founder of Metaphysical art, Giorgio de Chirico, a pioneer of the Arte Povera movement Jannis
Kounellis and abstract artist Theodoros Stamos.
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